[9], Kurdish, spoken natively by the Kurds throughout Kurdistan and used officially by the autonomous Region of Kurdistan in northern Iraq and the autonomous federation of Rojava in northern Syria, has a literary tradition whose earliest works are those of Malaye Jaziri, a 16th century influential Kurdish poet from Jazira who used the Kurmanji dialect, and of at least one writer before him, in addition to the orally transmitted folk poetry and prose narratives. MODERN PERSIAN LITERATURE. Its sources often come from far-flung regions beyond the borders of present-day Iran, as the Persian language flourished and survives across wide swaths of Central Asia. Gurani, spoken by the Guran Kurds mainly in Hawraman, also produced a literary tradition beginning in the 16th century. [3], Balochi, spoken natively by the Baloch people throughout Balochistan, has a literature starting from the early 19th century. (Please click on the "titles" to enter each section.) Modern Persian begins with the teaching of the Persian alphabet. The course IMES11070, Modern Persian Literature and Modern Iran, is a version of this course studying the texts in English translation for Postgraduate students. The Ṣafavids and the introduction of Shīʿism. In general, these reforms sought to implement technical improvements. Baluchi Language and Literature", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Iranian_literature&oldid=965935025, Articles containing Avestan-language text, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 4 July 2020, at 09:17. An influential author who introduced many modern literary techniques to Persian literature, Houshang Golshiri began writing fiction in the 1950s, although it wasn’t until the release of his first novel Prince Ehtejab (1969) that his talent was truly recognized. Persian literature differs from the common definition of “literature” in that it is not confined to lyrical compositions, to poetry or imaginative prose, because the central elements of these appear, to greater or lesser degrees, in all the written works of the Persians. Iranian literature, or Iranic literature,[1] refers to the literary traditions of the Iranian languages, developed predominantly in Iran and other regions in the Middle East and the Caucasus, eastern Asia Minor, and parts of western Central Asia and northwestern South Asia. Ossetian literature is based mainly on its prestigious Iron dialect, which is also used administratively. In spite of originating from the region of Persis (better known as Persia) in southwestern Iran, the Persian language was used and developed further through Persianate societies in Asia Minor, Central Asia, and South Asia, leaving massive influences on Ottoman and Mughal literatures, among others. For more support and information, please see our Coronavirus Resources. Persian literature spans two and a half millennia, though much of the pre-Islamic material has been lost. In the early decades of the 19th century, contacts between Iran and Europe rapidly increased, while two wars with Russia (1804–13 and 1826–28) made apparent Iran’s military weakness. History and description", "BALUCHISTAN iii. Modern Persian Literature Workshop I attended a Persian literature workshop with NYU professor Mohammad Mehdi Khorrami. Elahi passed the last three decades of his life in seclusion in his house in Tehran. There is a great deal of variety both in the genres and themes employed by women writers. Help support true facts by becoming a member. Its sources have been within historical Persia including present-day Iran as well as regions of Central Asia where the Persian language has been the national language through history. The "Persian Literature" Section of Iransaga includes Classical and modern Poetry and Prose, and informative facts relating to notable writers, and poets both from the past and the present day. Text entirely in Persian with a preface in English. -Old Persian- 522 BCE (Achaemenid inscription) -Islamic Conquest of Persia- 633 BCE -Sasanid State -Sasanian Empire- Sasanian Dynasty scribes and/or bureaucrats -Persians wrote in both Persian (Farsi) & Arabic History of Persian Literature 2. Volume IX: Persian Literature from Outside Iran. Among enlightened members of the Qājār elite the necessity of reforms was deeply felt. [13][14], This article is about the literatures of languages in the Iranian language family. It is spoken predominantly by the Ossetians in Ossetia, a region split between Georgia and Russia in the Caucasus, and is used officially by the Russian republic of North Ossetia-Alania and the autonomous State of Alania. Behzaad Bahreyni 2. For newcomers, however, the best entry point seems to be an anthology published in 2006: Strange Times, My Dear: The PEN Anthology of Contemporary Iranian Literature , featuring short stories, novel extracts and poems from more than 40 contributors. (books are softcover ... (The Stray Dog). Modern Iranian literatures include Persian literature, Ossetian literature, Kurdish literature, Pashto literature, and Balochi literature, among others. Volume X: Persian Historiography. Modern Iranian literatures include Persian literature, Ossetian literature, Kurdish literature, Pashto literature, and Balochi literature, among others. Publications: Modern Persian Literature Series. Persian literature (in Persian: ادبیات پارسی ‎) spans two and a half millennia, though much of the pre-Islamic material has been lost. Click on a picture for an enlarged image. These efforts were aimed primarily at strengthening the army through better training and equipment and through the assistance of foreign advisers. Illustrated with maps and drawings. Persian Literature The Persian Language The Old Persian of the Achaemenian Empire, preserved in a number of cuneiform inscriptions, was an Indo-European tongue with close affinities with Sanskrit and Avestan (the language of the Zoroastrian sacred texts). For students needing advising, please write to nelcua@uw.edu to determine how we can best respond to your inquiries. Modern Fiction & Literature. Modern Persian literature originates from its earlier forms in the 9th century, although it is also considered to be a continuation of works from much older stages of the language. Among enlightened members of the Qājār elite the necessity of reforms was deeply felt. The book offers a balanced and interdisciplinary analysis of the rich and admirable contemporary poetry and fiction of a land long tormented by wars and invasions. Often referred to as the father of modern Persian poetry, the ninth-century Persian poet Abū ‘Abdallāh Rūdakī (858–ca. Persian literature, body of writings in New Persian (also called Modern Persian), the form of the Persian language written since the 9th century with a slightly extended form of the Arabic alphabet and with many Arabic loanwords. Fiction, 160 pages, 21 cm. Course description appeared in Persia itself from the mid-18th century; it in turn was gradually subsumed into the modern period, culminating in the emergence of modern Persian literature with its close affinities with literary developments in the West. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. Measures were also taken that concerned the areas of education and culture. Lee "Modern Persian Literature in Afghanistan Anomalous Visions of History and Form" por Wali Ahmadi disponible en Rakuten Kobo. Modern Persian Literature in Afghanistan: Anomalous Visions of History and Form (Iranian Studies Book 5) (English Edition) eBook: Ahmadi, Wali: Amazon.com.mx: Tienda Kindle [5], Sogdian literature, dating mainly from the 9th and 10th centuries in Sogdia, was centered in Manichaean, Buddhist, and Christian texts. NOW 50% OFF! [2][3][4] These include works attested from as early as the 6th century BC. Persian, which became the language of early literary landmarks such as Firdawsī’s Shāh-nāma and Bal‘amī’s translation and adaptation of Ṭabarī’s History, and which in turn developed into Modern Persian. And thus the very circumstances which retarded the growth of a national Persian Literature were those which conduced … With the unleashing of the "War on Terror" in the aftermath of 9/11, Afghanistan has become prominent in the news. It aims to provide the student with the necessary skills for social interaction, as well as a basis for the study of modern literature. The Indian Subcontinent, Anatolia, Central Asia, and in Judeo-Persian. Everyday low prices and free delivery on eligible orders. Middle Persian literature (see Tavadia, 1956, now superseded by Cereti, 2001, who also offers long excerpts in translation) other than Manichean includes first of all a word-for-word translation of the Avesta (even faithfully rendering Avestan syntax, which results in a clumsy, not to say at times obscure, Middle Persian version), accompanied by a Middle Persian commentary. His name is based on his place of birth, the town of Rudak in Tajikistan. This led to the first attempts at a modernization of Iranian society. Anyone interested in reading modern Iranian literature can now find a full range of works by different generations of Iranian writers. Modern Persian Literature Series: An Anthology of Modern Persian Poetry, tr. Click on a picture for an enlarged image. Modern Fiction & Literature. 829 and, having found them, would send them to Baghdad to add lustre to the literary circle gathered round the Kalif. These include works attested from as early as the 6th century BC. In turn, and partly as a reaction, a neo-classical literary movement advocating a return to earlier aesthetic norms (bāzgašt-e adabi, q.v.) Ossetian, the only surviving descendant of the ancient Scytho-Sarmatian (Alanic) languages[8] that was written for the first time on an inscription dating from the 10th to 12th century, has a literary tradition that originates from the 17th century, with the first Ossetian book printed in 1798, although it also has a large body of older folkloric epics. For the literature of the country of Iran, see, Literature of languages in the Iranian language family, Old Persian, Parthian, and Middle Persian, "OSSETIC LANGUAGE i. Persian literatures 1. This series consists of translations of contemporary (20th Century) Persian writing. “The hermit-poet of modern Persian literature, Bijan Elahi (1945–2010) was a modernist poet, a prolific translator of Eliot, Rimbaud, Michaux, Hölderlin, and the founder of Other Poetry, the leading avant-garde movement within Persian modernism. Nine volumes have been published in this series thus far. Persian Writing OLD PERSIAN 3. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. A collection of short stories in Persian, including one of his best-known works, told from the point of view of a stray dog. [10][11][12], Pashto, one of Afghanistan's two official languages and the second-largest regional language of Pakistan that is spoken natively by the Pashtuns, has developed a literature since the 17th or possibly the 11th century, producing works mainly through its prestigious coastal dialects. The book offers a balanced and interdisciplinary analysis of the rich and admirable contemporary poetry and fiction of a land long tormented by wars and invasions. Britannica Kids Holiday Bundle! Prior to the workshop, we were to read four modern Persian short stories so we could interface with the professor regarding his ongoing research into the sensory side of Persian literature. Modern Persian Literature in Afghanistan: Anomalous Visions of History and Form Iranian Studies: Amazon.es: Wali Ahmadi: Libros en idiomas extranjeros [4], The earliest surviving literary works in an Iranian language are that of the religious texts of the Avesta, written in Avestan, an Old Iranian sacred language. One of them was. Modern Persian prose literature Snippet view - 1966. Various modern dialects of Persian are spoken natively by the Persians, Tajiks, Hazaras, and Aimaqs, among others, of which three standardized variants, namely Western Persian (or simply "Persian"), Dari, and Tajik, are used officially in Iran, Afghanistan, and Tajikistan. After the fall of the Achaemenians the ancient tongue developed, in the province of Pars, into Middle Persian… Persian literature (Persian: ادبیات فارسی ‎‎) is one of the world's oldest literatures.It spans two-and-a-half millennia, though much of the pre-Islamic material has been lost.Its sources have been within Greater Iran including present-day Iran, Iraq, the Caucasus, and Turkey, as well as regions of Central Asia where the Persian language has historically been the national language. in alphabetical order by author's surname. Common terms and phrases. Buy Modern Persian Literature in Afghanistan: Anomalous Visions of History and Form (Iranian Studies) 1 by Wali Ahmadi (ISBN: 9780415437783) from Amazon's Book Store. The Image of Arabs in Modern Persian Literature considers the problem of defining Iranianness, given Iran's ethnic diversity and history as an Islamic but non-Arab country. The Department of Near Eastern Languages & Civilization’s office operations have moved online until further notice. [2], Old Persian, the earliest form of the Persian language that is attested on several inscriptions from between the 6th to the 4th century BC, gave rise to Middle Persian in the 3rd century BC, which later produced a number of literary works centered in religious Manichaean and Zoroastrian books written between the 3rd to the 10th century AD. Please email neareast@uw.edu for general information. [3], Khotanese literary works, written in a dialect of the Saka language that was used by the Saka Kingdom of Khotan on the southern branch of the Silk Road, centered mostly in Buddhist texts and were produced mainly between the 5th to the 10th centuries. (books are softcover unless otherwise ... languages and customs of his native village. Modern Persian Literature in Afghanistan does just that. Of the living Iranian languages, Persian has been the most influential. Women’s writing has occupied a significant place in the development of modern Persian literature, although women’s increased literary production is far more evident in the post-revolutionary period. A. Karimi-Hakkak, Delmar, NY: Caravan Press and Bibliotheca Persica, 1978. Modern Persian Literature in Afghanistan does just that. The course IMES10009, Modern Persian Literature, is a version of this course studying the texts in Persian. The course consists of seventeen units and favours … [3], A few Bactrian manuscript fragments have also been discovered, dating between the 4th to the 9th century.[6][7]. 941) is regarded as the first great literary genius of modern Persian and the founder of Persian classical literature. Persian literature - Persian literature - Modern Iran: In the early decades of the 19th century, contacts between Iran and Europe rapidly increased, while two wars with Russia (1804–13 and 1826–28) made apparent Iran’s military weakness. in alphabetical order by author's surname. The oldest part of these are the Gathas (𐬔𐬁𐬚𐬁, Gāθā, "hymn"), that are a collection of hymns believed to be composed by Zoroaster, the reformer of the ancient Iranian religion and the founder of Zoroastrianism, dating to the 6th century BC. 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