Ortho-toluidine, used to make rubber chemicals, pesticides, and dyes, has been reevaluated and is now listed as a kno… In certain epidemiological studies, suspected associations between exposure duration and intensity of organic nitrate and ischaemic heart disease are considered uncertain, and pathogenetic plausibility for them is lacking. 1988). Precautionary measures are thus required for persons with ferromagnetic implants (unipolar pacemakers, magnetizable aneurysm clips, haemoclips, artificial heart valve parts, other electrical implants, and also metal fragments). Heat will hurt a human because it may cause first, second or third degree burns. According to Reinhardt et al. Hearing loss due to workplace noise has been recognized as an occupational disease for many years. An increase in blood viscosity and serum cholesterol was found with exposure to high temperatures (Clark and Edholm 1985; Gordon, Hyde and Trost 1988; Keatinge et al. These agents may be biological (specific viruses or bacteria), physical (ultraviolet light, x-rays) or chemical. In the foreground of the numerous experi- mental and few epidemiological studies stand possible long-term effects such as carcinogenicity, teratogenicity, effects on the im- mune or hormone systems, on reproduction (with special atten- tion to miscarriages and defects), as well as to “hypersensitivity to electricity” and neuro-psychological behavioural reactions. One theory holds that the physical particles cause irritation in the surrounding tissue, resulting in inflammation. The biochemical mechanisms of cancer development associated with physical agents is uncertain, and several different theories exist. In addition to the early and, for exposure against hand-arm vibration, specific peripheral vascular effects, of particular scientific interest are the so-called non-specific chronic changes of autonomous regulations of the organ systems—for example, of the cardiovascular system, perhaps provoked by vibration (Gemne and Taylor 1983). 2021 TLVs and BEIs Book and OEV Guide Combo Set. The results are contradic- tory. 1992), but study results are contradictory (Altura 1993; Schwarze and Thompson 1993). Still unclear is the decisive question of whether long-term exposure to cold or heat results in lasting increased risk of cardiovascular disease, or whether exposure to heat or cold increases the risk for an acute manifestation of cardiovascular diseases (e.g., a heart attack, a stroke) in connection with the actual exposure (the “triggering effect”). These drugs may cause brain problems and even cause you to have a gap in your skull/brain or may cause the child to be addicted without trying the drug. A problem with drugs, e.g. 1986). To protect yourself, make sure you are wearing a mask and make sure that you check the compressed gas before using it. The Safety, Health and Welfare At Work (Chemical Agents) Regulations, 2001 and the Safety, Health and Welfare at Work (Chemical Agents) (Amendment) Regulations 2015 apply to any enterprise where hazardous chemical agents are used or generated. Differentiating between hearing loss from noise and hearing loss from other factors is difficult. Deadly infarctions were observed among those with previous afflictions at 20% CO-Hb (Atkins and Baker 1985). GradesFixer.com uses cookies. 1) Physical transformation ; 2) Chemical transformation ; 3) Biological transformation; 1. 1966), and the study of Paffenbarger et al. The opinion is advanced in modern stress research that although increases in blood pressure during work are connected to noise exposure, the blood pressure level per se depends on a complex set of personality and environmental factors (Theorell et al. Certain statistics have not been updated since the production of the 4th edition of the Encyclopaedia (1998). There is a relatively uniform picture with respect to acute peripheral reactions to noise stimuli. It is long known and well documented that vibrations transmitted to the hands by vibrating tools can cause peripheral vascular disorders in addition to damage to the muscle and skeletal system, and peripheral nerve-function disorders in the hand-arm area (Dupuis et al. One last example of carcinogen are cigarettes as they contain many chemicals such as; methane, methanol, hexamine, stearic acid, arsenic, and many more. Table 1 gives an overview of possible occupation-related infectious diseases that affect the cardiovascular system. In previous studies, no direct cause-and-effect relationship could be shown between lack of movement and the rate of cardiovascular disease or mortality. The quantification of the risk of hypertension by using higher noise exposure levels was possible in this study only because the offered hearing protection was not worn. This includes ailments ranging from angina pectoris up to acute myocardial infarction and cases of sudden death. We will occasionally send you account related emails. This can affect virtually all occupational groups after a workplace accident. ", Copyright 2015 International Labour Organization, Physical, Chemical, and Biological Hazards, Resources, Institutional, Structural and Legal, International, Government and Non-Governmental Safety and Health, Labour Relations and Human Resource Management, Part V. Psychosocial and Organizational Factors, Part VIII. Differences among the blood pressure group means are relatively narrow, with values between 0 and 10 mm Hg. The observations make clear that statements on possible causal relationships between heavy physical labour and effects on cardiovascular morbidity are not easy to substantiate. Comparable results were cited by Moulin et al. Chemical. A chemical hazard is a hazard that can be caused through chemicals in the air and on surfaces at the workplace. AVAILABLE SOON! A. Limited Supply While They Last! on coronary risk among London bus drivers and conductors (Morris, Heady and Raffle 1956; Morris et al. 36. In 1954, Foulds ( 8 ) individualized a third stage that he termed ‘progression’, in order to account for all post-initiation events that occur during carcinogenesis. This is not an example of the work written by professional essay writers. These hazards can vary from a microorganisms, viruses or toxins. These burns affect the skin very severely. It is today generally accepted that noise exposure is a psychophysical stressor. It can be assumed that such results will not ensue with a healthy coronary vessel system and intact myocardium (Fritze and Müller 1995). The risk is clearly greater with vibrations from machines with higher frequencies (20 to over 800 Hz) than with machines that produce low-frequency vibrations. The risk is that injuries or bleeding can result from migration or pivotal motions, and that functional capacities (e.g., of heart valves, pacemakers and so on) can be affected. The “white finger disease”, first described by Raynaud, appears with higher prevalency rates among exposed populations, and is recognized as an occupational disease in many countries. The participation of the heart can appear either during or after the actual infection. Even with combined physical-mental strain or physical strain under the effects of noise, a substantial increase in blood pressure and heart rate are seen in a certain percentage (approximately 30%) of people (Frauendorf, Kobryn and Gelbrich 1992; Frauendorf et al. The new report now includes 243 listings. ... reasonable to postulate that permanent changes in the DNA or the RNA of a cell can be brought about by chemicals and by physical energy as well as by viruses, ... much less whether this is a general explanation for the role of chemical carcinogens. Selection of activities and industrial branches that may be associated with cardiovascular hazards, Rayon and synthetic fiber fabrication, rubber, matches, explosives and cellulose industries Used as solvent in manufacture of pharmaceuticals, cosmetics and insecticides, Explosives and munitions manufacture, pharmaceuticals industry, Employees in large industrial combustion facilities (blast furnaces, coke ovens) Manufacture and utilization of gas mixtures containing CO (producer gas facilities) Repair of gas pipelines Casting workers, firefighters, auto mechanics (in badly ventilated spaces) Exposures to accidents (gases from explosions, fires in tunnel building or underground work), Smelting of lead ore and secondary raw materials containing lead Metal industry (production of various alloys), cutting and welding metals containing lead or materials coated with coverings containing lead Battery factories Ceramics and porcelain industries (production of leaded glazes) Production of leaded glass Paint industry, application and removal of leaded paints, Solvents (paints, lacquer) Adhesives (shoe, rubber industries) Cleaning and degreasing agents Basic materials for chemical syntheses Refrigerants Medicine (narcotics) Methyl chloride exposure in activities using solvents. In the studies (Talbott et al. In the magnetic field, such as in the blood stream or during heart contraction, charged carriers lead to induction of electrical fields and currents. A hazard is anything with the potential to cause bodily injury, and includes any physical, chemical, biological, mechanical, electrical, or ergonomic hazard. Presumed influences of age or nutrition could be excluded. 1990); opportunistic infections but also by the HIV
virus itself as lymphocytic myocarditis (Beschorner et al. There is little, if any, epidemiological evidence to support the hypothesis that the risk of cardiovascular disease is higher in populations with an occupational, long-term exposure to high temperature (Dukes-Dobos 1981). To export a reference to this article please select a referencing style below: Sorry, copying is not allowed on our website. The physical work is, in general, intensive, but has less of a workout effect on the cardiovascular system. Still being discussed is whether a direct cardiac effect exists such as reduced contractility, suppression of impulse formation centres, impulse transmission, or reflex impairment resulting from irrigation in the upper airway region. Types of mutagens Physical mutagen Chemical mutagen Biological mutagen 6. Personality and environmental factors play an intimate role in determining the total stress load at the workplace. Physical Properties: The physical properties include texture, structure, and colour. Neurotoxicity is a form of toxicity in which a biological, chemical, or physical agent produces an adverse effect on the structure or function of the central and/or peripheral nervous system. Many studies carried out in these countries demonstrated no clear risk at such noise levels, so it can be concluded from Gierke and Harris (1990) that limiting the noise level to the set limits prevents most extra-aural effects. This study looked at non-smoking women aged 35 ±8 years, so according to v. Eiff’s results (1993), the noise-related risk of hypertension among men could be significantly higher. 1987). Consequently, it was assumed that human exposure to exogenous chemicals may lead to toxic and carcinogenic hazards ( 9 ) and that chemical carcinogenesis comprises the three sequential and successive steps: initiation, promotion and progression ( 10–12 ). The combination of heavy, physically demanding work and high free-time physical activity could establish the most favourable situation with respect to the cardiovascular risk-factor profile and the onset of CHD (Saltin 1992). 1993; Marshall and Bilderling 1984). The effects can be difficulty breathing or get irritation on your skin, flammable, explosive or affect the environment. The toxic effects of carbon monoxide result from tissue hypoxaemia, which results from the increased formation of CO-Hb (CO has 200-times greater affinity to haemoglobin than does oxygen) and the resulting reduced release of oxygen to the tissues. It can cause abnormalities to the child and stop the growth. Many radioactive substances are carcinogens, but their cancer activity You would need to wear boots with a metal toe cap and a hard hat, different workers have different hard hats, even visitors get a different coloured hat, make sure their whole body is well insulated with the correct clothing, wear gloves at all times, goggles, and for those who are working high up in the sky, they would need to make sure they are wearing their safety harness. An increase in the noise level from 70 to 100 dBA raised the risk for high blood pressure by a factor of 2.5. Both studies found a significantly increased prevalence of hypertension among those subject to high temperatures, which increased with the duration of the hot work. Xanax (Alprazolam), may cause significant memory loss, brain damage, lack of concentration. Experimental studies have shown that with regular motion training, the known risk factors and other health-related factors are positively influenced. Whereas experimental studies on animals possibly showed an atherogenic effect by way of hypoxia of the vasa walls or by direct CO effect on the vasa wall (increased vascular permeability), the flow characteristics of the blood (strengthened thrombocyte aggregation), or lipid metabolism, the corresponding proof for humans is lacking. The following relative risks were calculated for the onset of a myocardial infarction within one hour of heavy physical strain in comparison with light activity or rest: 5.9 (CI 95%: 4.6-7.7) in the American and 2.1 (CI 95%: 1.6-3.1) in the German study. Any physical, chemical or biological substance, which can cause or promote cancer is referred to as a carcinogen. The sensitizing potential of hydrocarbons apparently depends on the degree of halogenation and on the type of the halogen contained, whereas chlorine-substituted hydrocarbons are supposed to have a stronger sensitizing effect than fluoride compounds. The cardiovascular system can either react as a complication of an infection with a localized organ participation—vasculitis (inflammation of the blood vessels), endocarditis (inflammation of the endocardium, primarily from bacteria, but also from fungus and protozoa; acute form can follow septic occurrence; subacute form with generalization of an infection), myocarditis (heart muscle inflammation, caused by bacteria, viruses and protozoa), pericarditis (pericardium inflammation, usually accompanies myocarditis), or pancarditis (simultaneous appearance of endocarditis, myocarditis and pericarditis)—or be drawn as a whole into a systemic general illness (sepsis, septic or toxic shock). This increased risk is comparable to that found for hypercholesterolemia, hypertension and smoking (Berlin and Colditz 1990; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 1993; Kristensen 1994; Powell et al. Germ-infected wounds can induce a myo- or endo- carditis with, for example, streptococci and staphylococci. The thing with UV is that it mainly damages the skin and the cells inside. (1993) in a cohort study of French steel workers. Four substances have been added in the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services 13th Report on Carcinogens, a science-based document that identifies chemical, biological, and physical agents that are considered cancer hazards for people living in the United States. In the investigated deaths, often no coronary sclerotic changes were documented. A few examples may be from heat, objects that fall, construction work, etc. 1990); 67% (Higuchi et al. Despite a large number of studies on functional, non-invasive (thermography, plethysmography, capillaroscopy, cold test) and invasive examinations (biopsy, arteriography), the pathophysiology of the vibration-related Raynaud’s phenomenon is not yet clear. Category 2 carcinogens are suspected human carcinogens. For this reason, HHS can occur as a complication or in connection with a VVS (Kaji et al. If you fit this description, you can use our free essay samples to generate ideas, get inspired and figure out a title or outline for your paper. The triggering mechanism of occasionally life-threatening arrhythmia from these materials presumably comes from myocardial sensitivity to epinephrine, which works as a natural carrier for the autonomic nervous system. Objects that fall is very dangerous as something heavy may fall on you and cause a broken bone or even death. 1990); more frequent (68%) among chronic Q-fever
with weak immune system or pre-existing heart disease
(Brouqui et al. In addition to type and virulence of the pathogen, the efficiency of the immune system plays a role in how the heart reacts to an infection. Accidents and Safety Management, Using, Storing and Transporting Chemicals, Part X. Smokers and victim of secondhand smoke can easily be subjected to cancers. Overview of possible occupation-related infectious diseases that affect the cardiovascular system, Occurrence/frequency of effects on heart in case of disease, 42% (Blanc et al. Industries Based on Biological Resources, Agriculture and Natural Resources Based Industries, Part XI. We can custom edit this essay into an original, 100% plagiarism free essay. If allowed to accumulate in the human body in large amounts or for extended periods of time, there is a higher likelihood that your cells will become damaged, resulting in the growth of cancer cells. The amount of static strain (gripping and pressing strength) appears to be a contributing factor. • Mutagenare Classified into, physicaMost chemical carcinogens are mutagens.event resulting in a heritable change. If exposed too long than this will happen, so it is best not to have a lot in a period of time. Chemical carcinogens are prevalent in the environment both as natural products and as synthetic compounds. All these are hazardous as they are all bad chemicals bad for the health of a human. According to currently available data, no direct health threat is to be expected for short-term whole-body exposure up to 2 T (UNEP/WHO/IRPA 1987). Studies on the incidence of cardiovascular diseases in occupational groups exposed to ionizing radiation are not available. 1. A mutagen is not the same as a carcinogen. 1973) and a glass factory in Canada (Wojtczak-Jaroszowa and Jarosz 1986). this essay is not unique. This is based on evidence obtained from human and/or animal studies but which is not sufficient for a Category 1 classification Category 2 mutagens cause concern for human owing to the possibility that they may induce heritable mutations in the germ cells of humans. These all can lead to a cancer, especially lung cancer. Remember: This is just a sample from a fellow student. GradesFixer. In any case, among those workers who were in heat-exposed jobs less than six months, the cardiovascular mortality was relatively high (Redmond, Gustin and Kamon 1975; Redmond et al. 2020 © gradesfixer.com. This listing makes clear that problems of inclusion, combined exposures, varying consideration of compounding factors, changing target sizes and assessment strategies play a considerable role in the findings, so that uncertainties remain in the conclusions of these epidemiological studies. In epidemiological studies an association has been observed with longer exposure times between lead exposure and increased blood pressure, as well as an increased incidence of cerebrovascular diseases, whereas there was little evidence of increased cardiovascular diseases. In the 1980s and 1990s the possible effects of electrical and magnetic fields on human health have attracted increasing atten- tion from people in occupational and environmental medicine. The temperature at which the lowest cardiovascular mortality was observed is higher in Taiwan than in countries with colder climates. In such situations clear pathogenetic conceptions and knowledge can support the suspected connections and thereby contribute to deriving and substantiating the consequences, including preventive measures. Where monotonous improper strains cannot be avoided, counterbalancing with free-time sports activities of comparable duration should be encouraged (e.g., swimming, bicycling, walking and tennis). Almost all studies confirm an increase in heart rate (Carter 1988; Fisher and Tucker 1991; Michalak, Ising and Rebentisch 1990; Millar and Steels 1990; Schwarze and Thompson 1993; Thompson 1993). In facilities in research and industry with strong magnetic fields, some authors advise medical surveillance examinations for people with cardiovascular diseases, including high blood pressure, in jobs where the magnetic field exceeds 2 T (Bernhardt 1986; Bernhardt 1988). All of this clearly shows that noise stimuli below the noise-deafness level can lead to hyperactivity of the hypophyseal adrenal cortex system (Ising and Kruppa 1993; Rebentisch, Lange-Asschenfeld and Ising 1994). 1994; Stout and Grawford 1991; Woodhouse, Khaw and Plummer 1993b; Woodhouse et al. Whether the vibration directly causes damage to the vascular musculature (a “local fault”), or whether it is a vasoconstriction as a result of sympathetic hyperactivity, or whether both these factors are necessary, is at present still unclear (Gemne 1994; Gemne 1992). 1989). In Japan, vascular changes in the area of the retina were found, whereas in Finland the cardiovascular effects dominated. Exposure to loud noise almost always results fairly quickly in changes such as in blood cortisone, cyclical adenosinmonophosphate (CAMP), cholesterol and certain lipoprotein fractions, glucose, protein fractions, hormones (e.g., ACTH, prolactin), adrenalin and noradrenalin. The mortality from ischemic heart disease was higher for underground miners than for above-ground workers (relative risk = 1.6). If you smell gases, make sure you go to someone for help or open some doors and windows to let out the gas. Kunst, Looman and Mackenbach found in the Netherlands a V-shaped relationship between total mortality and outside temperature, with the lowest mortality at 17°C. Using an additive logistical model the factors “indicated cooking salt use”, “family history of high blood pressure” and “noise level” (<<0.05) significantly correlated with the probability of high blood pressure. The figures were statistically significant for blood diseases, high blood pressure, ischemic heart disease and respiratory tract diseases. ADVERTISEMENTS: Soil Texture refers to the particle sizes composing the soil. We’ve got you covered. Partially contradictory epidemiological studies that looked for cor- relations between occupational and/or environmental exposure to weak, low-frequency electrical and magnetic fields, on the one hand, and the onset of health disorders on the other, aroused considerable attention. Other non-specific mutagens: Other unclassified mutagens are responsible for DNA damage and … Some authors have concluded that a causal relationship possibly exists between temperature stress and the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases (Curwen and Devis 1988; Curwen 1991; Douglas, Allan and Rawles 1991; Khaw 1995; Kunst, Looman and Mackenbach 1993; Rogot and Padgett 1976; Wyndham and Fellingham 1978). This does not definitively clarify whether cardiotoxic effects are definitely excluded at doses under 10 ppm. The calculation of the aetiological role of chemical occupational factors for cardiovascular diseases for the Danish population resulted in a value under 1% (Kristensen 1994). From the occupational medicine perspective, one might conclude that static physical strain on the muscle-skeleton system with lack of movement, presents a much greater health risk than previously assumed, according to the results of studies to date. Other materials like cadmium, cobalt, arsenic, antimony, beryllium, organic phosphates and solvents are under discussion, but not sufficiently documented as yet. A mutagen is anything that will cause a mutation to occur. Bacteria, viruses, fungi and protozoa are among the biological hazardous materials that can harm the cardiovascular system through contact that is intentional  (introduction of technology-related  biological  materials)  or  unintentional  (non-technology-related contamination of work materials). The indications are mounting that noise and the risk factors—increased blood pres- sure, increased serum cholesterol level (Pillsburg 1986), and smoking (Baron et al. It should be mentioned that cold stress is not only a function of temperature. 1987). Among these is tem- porary hypertension that appears with lead colic. Provide 5 specific examples of chemical or physical mutagens or carcinogens, along with the type of mutation they cause. Don’t take any drugs as they will affect your health and you may become addicted to them. Attention! In this paper, we review chemical, physical and biological properties of waterpipe smoke. 1987)—have a synergistic effect on the de- velopment of noise-induced hearing loss. Certain immediate effects of low-frequency magnetic fields on the organism that have been scientifically documented through in vitro and in vivo examinations of low to high field strengths should be mentioned in this connection (UNEP/WHO/IRPA 1984; UNEP/WHO/IRPA 1987). The effects described in the literature appear to be influenced by a combination of factors like muscle activity, dress, dampness, drafts and possibly poor living conditions. Physical, Chemical and Biological Properties of Soil – Essay The physical chemical and biological properties determine both the fertility and productivity of soils. A large epidemiological study of women textile workers in China (Zhao, Liu and Zhang 1991) plays a key role in noise effect research. Assessing the physical load, often solely on the basis of job descriptions, must be seen as an inadequate method. Pssst… Most mutagens are potential carcinogens although some mutagens are more potent than others. Many case studies and a few epidemiological studies have drawn attention to the possibility that ionizing radiation, introduced to treat cancer or other diseases, may promote the development of arteriosclerosis and thereby increase the risk for coronary heart disease and also other cardiovascular diseases (Kristensen 1989; Kristensen 1994). Five categories of cancer forming agents can be identified. It may cause short or long term health problems. Counterpoised, however, are studies that found very little or no statistical association between long-term noise exposure and in- creased blood pressure or hypertension (Schwarze and Thompson 1993; Thompson 1993; van Dijk 1990). This may be due to the ability to damage the genome or to disrupt cellular metabolism or both rendering the cell to be sensitive for cancer development. Temperature proved to be the strongest, acute (day to day) predictor for cardiovascular mortality under the parameters which were handled differently, such as seasonal environmental changes and factors like air pollution, sunlight exposure, incidence of flu and nutrition. “A biological hazardous material can be defined as a biological material capable of self-replication that can cause harmful effects in other organisms, especially humans” (American Industrial Hygiene Association 1986). A carcinogen is any substance which can promote carcinogenesis or cancer formation by physical, chemical, or biological process . HHS is caused by long-term mechanical effects in the form of external pressure or blows, or by sudden strain in the form of mechanical partial body vibrations (often combined with persistent pressure and the effects of impacts). If you’d like this or any other sample, we’ll happily email it to you. Causes as well as mechanisms of the reaction of the cardiovascular system to whole-body vibrations are not yet sufficiently known. Chemical Carcinogens Biological Carcinogens Dr.CSBR.Prasad, M.D., 10. The relative risks for high blood pressure range between 1 and 3.1 in com- parisons of exposure to loud and less loud noise. Lead attacks the contractile mechanism of the vasa muscle cells and causes vascular spasms, which are considered causes for a series of symptoms of lead intoxication. 1991), Workers in meatpacking, fish
processing, fishers, veterinarians, Typhus among other
rickettsiosis (exclud-
ing Q fever), Data varies, through direct pathogen, toxic or resistance-reduction
during fever resolution, Toxic damage to vasa
(Gross, Jahn and
Schölmerich 1970),
Myocarditis, Haemorrhagic fever
(Ebola, Marburg,
Lassa, Dengue, etc. Carcinogens • Agents causing cancer (thro’ genetic damage) • Classification • Chemical • Physical • Hormonal • Biological • History: • 18th Century Sir Percival Pott • Scrotal skin cancer in …

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