This aquatic grain rice will often help improve pond water clarity and quality. 4 0 obj her homesteading skills are unmatched, she raises chickens, goats, horses, a wide variety of vegetables, not to mention she’s an expert is all sorts of homesteading skills such as hide tanning, doll making, tree tapping and many, many more. The species are easily distinguished when they are in seed. Top 10 Conventional Crops For a Duck Food Plot. Sago pondweed is extremely important in the Chesapeake because it is a food source for birds, including waterfowl (especially diving ducks and swans), marsh birds, and shorebirds. The seeds, tubers, stems, leaves, and roots can all be consumed. While this article is focused on what you can cultivate in a food plot for your ducks to eat, a savvy homesteader should also consider stocking the pond with other small wildlife and crops for the flock to consume at will. Because duckweed grows so rapidly, it beats the algae in the race for space, oxygen, and nutrients. Both of these poultry bird and waterfowl edibles make great companion plants for each other or for fairy moss. Ducks tend to prefer the rhizomes or roots of the wild celery plant, but will also readily feast upon the seeds that are released during the fall. Although hornwort plants do not grow as rapidly as duckweed, water hyacinth, or fairy moss, it does reproduce robustly, and is a hardy aquatic plant that ducks enjoy eating in its entirety. /Length 5 0 R Even if you don’t want to find or buy salamanders to beef up their population around your pond to feed the ducks, consider not running them off, killing them, or using them all for other purposes so they can reproduce naturally to help feed your flock. Removing narrow-leaf pondweeds may allow less-desirable plants such as curlyleaf pondweed or Eurasian watermilfoil to move in. In areas where invasive plants like hydrilla and milfoil aren’t present, this plant can do well. SAGO PONDWEED. One of the best food sources for ducks is the sago pondweed, which will grow virtually anywhere but in very salty waters. I first discovered how easy it was to grow millet when tossing the leavings from a millet treat my Sun Conures left on the bottom of their tray into the compost pile – we never bought millet from a pet store again. Sago pondweed is considered a nuisance weed or noxious weed in some waters that are used for recreational purposes and in irrigation canals. So quickly, in fact, that in my growing zone (USDA Zone 6) we get three full crops per year. As an Amazon Associate I earn from qualifying purchases. Never forage any plant that you are not 100% sure has not been treated with chemical pesticides, or with other possible contaminants. Underwater Grasses in Chesapeake Bay & Mid-Atlantic Coastal Waters by Maryland Sea Grant When you hear the term “food plot” you most likely conjure up images of intentionally grown conventional crops for either wild animals or livestock that only venture to water to get a cool drink. Sago pondweed. Needs medium to mucky soils and 12 to 36 inch water depth. Sago Pondweed. This plant is bushy in appearance with narrow thread-like leaves alternately arranged. The lizards and fish you might also be cultivating as a part of poultry bird food plot also uses sago pondweed as a favorite food source. This tiny grain is the same stuff that is sold for far too much in pet stores to feed to parrots, cockatiels, and other caged birds. When grown in a bucket or shallow container, expect the duckweed to double in size in the matter of just a few days. More on Lake Christina, a DU Living Lakes project, on Pages 6 to 9 . Some of the most familiar species within this family that are native to the United States are the wood duck, mallard, America widgeon, northern pintail, scaups (both lesser and greater), blue-winged teal, and many others.Ducks are separated even further into two main groups: dabbling ducks and diving ducks. Will the ducks try to eat upon the wild rice plants before they are mature? The stems are thin, long and highly branching with leaves very thin and filament-like, about 1/16 of an inch wide and 2 to over 12 inches long tapering to a point. Milo, or sorghum as it is most commonly called on homesteads, farms, and ranches, has long been a grain staple in livestock feed. Sago pondweed is a branching underwater plant that grows to a height of more than three feet. /CreationDate (D:20090120110815-05'00') /Filter /FlateDecode But, too much duckweed can cause water conditions that are toxic for turtles, fish, and some plants. The leaves grow in thick layers and originate from a … Sago pondweed, however, has leaves in bushy clusters, and widgeon grass has alternate leaves, whereas horned pondweed has opposite or whorled leaves. Waterfowl —Waterfowl extensively use and rely on slender pondweed as food and the whole plant can be consumed, and parts are utilized by diving, dabbling, whistling ducks, many types of geese, swans and coots. The tubers and seeds are very nutritious, but leaves, stems and roots are also eaten. It can be confused with slender pondweed, horned pondweed and widgeon grass. >> If you don’t keep ducks for meat and eggs, but want to attract wild ducks to your pond for hunting purposes, growing these foods on this list will help achieve that goal, as well. The birds eat every last bit of it. This isn't surprising when you consider that ruddy ducks often consume the same plant foods that canvasbacks do, such as sago pondweed. You can grow water hyacinth in a shallow plastic tub or baby pool, and simply toss it to the chickens as you would any other fresh green. << Widgeon grass is a freshwater plant but has been known to survive in somewhat brackish water. It will tolerate water that is 3 … This blend has been designed to be planted near bodies of water. %PDF-1.2 Բ1�����^��~Sp�Jo_] When planted alongside rice crops, fairy moss is an excellent companion plant and helps to increase the yield. Ducks need a variety of plants and insects in their daily diets. In addition, sago pondweed, coontail, and wild celery are common submergent plants able to grow at a variety of water depths. Look in shallow areas with good current flow. Both Japanese and Golden varieties of millet grow rather quickly. Wild rice will self-seed quite well once the crop has been successfully established. /Title (5.Sago Pondweed Fact Sheet.doc) Fish—The growth habit of sago pondweed lends it to being productive habitat for fish. The stems are thin, long and highly branching with leaves very thin and filament-like, about 1/16 of an inch wide and 2 to over 12 inches long tapering to a point. Sago Pondweed [ Potamogeton pectinatus ] Sago Pondweed (Potamogeton pectinatus) has very fine slender leaves. How to Plant Wild Rice for Ducks. This nutritional aquatic plant is a favorite of domesticated ducks and wild waterfowl alike. 1 0 obj Winter 2014 . << This plant is often grown at fisheries and waterfowl hatcheries to provide a natural source of food for the wildlife. Water hyacinth is a close second to duckweed in growing speed. Where to Find It—Sago pondweed can be found in a wide variety of places. Faunal Associations: Various insects feed on the foliage or roots of Sago Pondweed (Stuckenia pectinata), or they bore into the foliage and position themselves to become filter-feeders of microscopic organisms in the water. This aquatic plant generates buds that will prompt a lot of underwater diving by the happy ducks to reach. Sago pondweed can be distinguished by its bushy clusters of leaves that grow alternately along the stem and by the white bayonets at the base of the leaves. This plant cannot be wintered over outdoors like duckweed can in most growing zones. Sago also provides food for amphibians, reptiles, fish, and mammals. Official Newsletter of Minnesota Ducks Unlimited Sago pondweed leaves are approximately one-sixteenth of an inch wide, and grow to between two to twelve inches long.Little nutlets develop on the plant and give the appearance of tiny beads on a piece of string. LAKE CHRISTINA . Rate - 3 lbs. © 2020 New Life On A Homestead | Homesteading Blog, Growing Duckweed for Livestock Feed (chicken and koi fish food) (https://youtu.be/yNcBzsMxmPg), Carolina Fairy Moss – Azolla caroliniana – Floating Pond Plant (https://youtu.be/hoLytvonWE0), Chap-42 how to grow water Hyacinth at home (https://youtu.be/9S_t2J68CTw), Planting The Millet Patch For Animal Feed (https://youtu.be/xSYZMH4QLHw), Sago pondweed (Potamogeton pectinatus) (https://youtu.be/6pakJ4J4k1c), Wild Rice Grower (https://youtu.be/zNv2erSbFEI), Planting wild celery in the Pond (https://youtu.be/vDvooCjhV-A), Double Crop Milo (My first Milo ever) (https://youtu.be/B79ImdgKygY), how to grow hornwort [and benifits] (https://youtu.be/IK5Q5pkhuQI), How to Prepare Your Homestead for Blackouts and EMPs. Not only do ducks love it, koi fish seem to as well. Physical Management Options Sago Pondweed can be removed by raking or seining it from the pond, but will re-establish from any remaining roots and seeds. /Creator (pdfFactory www.pdffactory.com) Chickens will converge around the pond bank or dip their beaks into the poultry run kiddie pool to steal some away from their web-footed friends because they too really enjoy the taste. Typically, sorghum crops are grown to feed cattle, but ducks are attracted to this nutrient-rich plant, as well. Fairy Moss Fairy moss looks a lot like duckweed, but it is three-eighths of an inch to one inch long. Other Management Considerations. Sago pondweed cannot grow until the water in the pond or container hits at a minimum of 60 degrees. Water hyacinth and fairy moss both tend to die when exposed to temperatures below 40 degrees. The nickname comes from the hairy or needle like leaves that appear on the tall and lanky stems of the plant. or 1,000 tubers per acre Water depths between one and two feet are ideal for these species. �zV�2/WM���Zh��� ��ս�zW��+���T����5�����|k1�u�=�PW�8YHx�?�I�Z�0`ʥDZ�dG�J.�Ge�5)�1�]V�0��[[��Dx�6R���ym߂쏍/ ��R�8;&ʶ7��mL�cx��i_!Z"�%?�J�ZJ�������.k,�e���Pie\JY�1�3N8[�a����� �X�m�YB�Q�eI��VS�̐ԣ��WE�(5W�7. Growing your own duck food may not only save you an enormous amount of money over time, but will also provide both a sustainable and more natural diet for your meat and egg birds. These leaves also make the plant look like a furry tail – hence the most common nickname – coontail. Sago Pondweed has a root system which means the roots need to be destroyed to prevent the plant from coming back. Little green flowers also blossom above the water on the pondweed plant, and are shaped like dainty spikes. Similar Species: Slender pondweed, southern naiad. It also provides some cover for bluegills, perch, northern pike and walleyes. Sago pondweed can be cultured in liquid media for experimental purposes from druplets, turions, rhizomes, leafy tops, or cuttings. While having a large pond is ideal, you can (and should) grow at least a portion of the feed in buckets or in baby pools. Tadpoles do not stand a chance of growing into annoyingly loud frogs in your pond if the duck flock is turned out to enjoy the same water. Sago pondweed (Studkenia pectinata) and widgeon grass (Ruppia maritima) are similar in appearance to horned pondweed. This site may earn commissions when you click on certain links. The Vallisneria plant nickname, wild celery, was given because the meat from ducks that ate it carries a decidedly celery-like flavoring. Water hyacinths not only grow but thrive in water that many other aquatic plants would kill when both phosphorus and nitrogen levels become too intense. While doing so will not typically harm them, it will reduce the number of viable plants. /Author (lrowan) Some of those grass beds persist to this day, 20 years after planting. But, cultivating food plots for ducks, especially aquatic ones, is just as simple and inexpensive as growing the feed that sustains the other animals on the homestead or courts in deer and turkey. This photo of a bed of sago pondweed, a favorite of canvasbacks, was taken during the Lake Christina aquatic plant survey last August (photograph courtesy of the Minnesota DNR). The seeds, tubers, stems, leaves, and roots can all be consumed. This aquatic plant was named for Antonio Vallisneria, an Italian botanist. There are multiple cultivars of sorghum, the milo variety that ducks are most attracted to is “sorghum bicolor.” The plants can grow up to 10 feet tall and then be chopped up and used as feed. Drawbacks. Like all waterfowl, stiff-tailed ducks are inextricably linked to the habitats on which they depend. Sago pondweed is an extremely important aquatic plant in lakes and ponds because of its nutritional value as a food source for birds, including waterfowl (especially diving ducks and swans), marsh birds, and shorebirds. You should assume any link is an affiliate link. But, once that first duck nibbles on the aquatic plants and ground plants that you have so lovingly grown for them, they will never want to return to hard little pellet feed again. Easy to plant and one of the more successful waterfowl food sources. Duckweed is known to be one of the fastest growing plants on Earth. All breeds of ducks have a rather varied diet, and are largely opportunistic eaters. When the plant matures, usually by September, it will stand between two to eight feet above the water surface, on average. Millet is a “plant it and forget it” type of self-seeding crops. Simply use your hands or a swimming pool net to scoop some of the plants out of their growing water, and place them in a space where the ducks are roaming. We sow millet into the moist soil along the banks of our pond so all of the poultry birds can forage for it together in their main free ranging area. Sometimes, Sago Pondweed becomes the dominant aquatic plant in these habitats, forming extensive colonies. Depending upon your climate, wild rice is most often planted in the fall in the sediment layer of a waterway so it can over winter there. Sago pondweed is one of the most important sources of food for waterfowl in North America. Consisting of 35% Japanese Millet, this mix will change flywasys and keep your mornings busy. %���� This plant is also commonly called “ditch grass” or “widgeonweeds.”. If your ducks have only eaten or primarily eaten commercially manufactured feed, it may take a little bit for them to adjust to a straight foraging diet. It is possible to do away with store-bought commercial feed entirely if you cultivate aquatic and ground food plots for your ducks. Being a submergent the Sago needs to be planted where there will be at least 8 inches of water at all times. /Producer (pdfFactory 1.65 \(Windows XP Professional\)) Unlike duckweed, fairy moss, and water hyacinth that grow superbly even in shallow water, wild celery needs at least 18 inches to three feet deep water in order to thrive. The leaves and the seeds are consumed by ducks, and so are the insects that are drawn to the coontail plants. Ruddy ducks taste just fine, as I can personally attest. Sources and Additional Information. Some of the reviews on this site may be compensated by the companies whose products were reviewed. This method eliminates uncontrolled variables that can be introduced from the substrate or soil in which sago pondweed would normally be grown (Kantrud, 1990). Percent Composition. SECURE EARLY as we harvest from the wild and there are limited amounts. Sago Pondweed is fast growing and provides food for wild ducks. Widgeon grass can be distinguished by its leaves, which grow alternately along the branches, and its seeds, which grow on individual stalks. m�D�ETe��^f�����$/���h�%�j����'����ы�ѻ�\���������&�4���Mr�2��o2)�����z�̓������$/G��g�y\o~4�F�ެ7����Z�?�p�56��Z���}�V�]? The following are general options to consider when managing a marsh: Pond Weed Identification and Aquatic Weed Types. This nutritional aquatic plant is a favorite of domesticated ducks and wild waterfowl alike. Becaus… Management strategy: See DNR regulations. As long as the area where millet is planted will not get flooded, it truly can be grown in about any dirt – including the compost pile inside of the poultry run. Emergent Plants. Sago pondweed is an aquatic herbaceous plant up to 3 feet tall. There is no heavy, time consuming, or dirty work involved with transplanting aquatic plants from a bucket or kiddie pool into a pond or another kiddie pool inside of the duck run. Swans, geese, and diving ducks such as canvasbacks favor the tubers and seeds of sago pondweed. This plant is named for Italian botanist Antonio Vallisneri and acquired its common name of wild celery because the meat of ducks that eat a lot of Vallisneria is said to have a celery-like flavor. Wild celery not only provides a sustainable food source for ducks, but serves as a shade plant to give them a spot to rest away from the sunshine when out enjoying the pond, and foraging for food. Duck Lake Aquatic Plant Growth Habit Chara vulgaris Muskgrass 10.9 Submersed, Rooted Potamogeton pectinatus Thin leaf (Sago) Pondweed 15.2 Submersed, Rooted Potamogeton zosteriformis Flatstem Pondweed 1.2 Submersed, Rooted Potamogeton amplifolius Large-leaf Pondweed … This also produces a strong food chain for the pond fish. Duckweed (genus Lemma) is also the smallest flowering plant known to exist. Control the skies with this 6-specie blend to give waterfowl their migrational fix. endobj stream Wild rice (Zizania aquatica) does best when planted in fall and allowed to overwinter in the bottom mud of a pond or stream. It too can take over a pond quickly if left to grow without being fed upon by ducks. If control is absolutely necessary, try hand-pulling, raking, or underwater cutting. It is known to provide up to half of the dietary needs of waterfowl. This is one of my favorite waterfowl and duck food plots. Tara lives on a 56 acres farm in the Appalachian Mountains, where she faces homesteading and farming challenges every single day. This aquatic plant is also often referred to as “hornwort.”. Multiple long thin leaves appear bushy beneath the water. Depending upon where you live, duckweed should remain a viable food source outdoors long into the late weeks of fall and in some locations, it can go slightly dormant and then spring back into rapid growth spurts come spring. Trust me, it will not last long enough to mildew inside the poultry run. 35% Japanese Millet 20% WGF Sorghum 20% Spring Oat 10% Buckwheat 10% Proso Millet 5% Alsike White Clover It can be confused with sago pondweed, slender pondweed and horned pondweed. Swans, geese and diving ducks favor the seeds of Sago pondweed. Simply hand-pull, cut, and deliver duck-safe plant growth to your flock inside their coop or run as a snack or as a part of their daily food ration. When dehydrated to preserve water hyacinth for winter duck flock feeding, water hyacinths have roughly the same protein content as soybeans. We are enrolled in the Amazon Associates program, so we may earn a commission if you purchase something from Amazon after clicking one of our links. The leaves grow in thick layers and originate from a … The stems are thin, long and highly branching with leaves very thin and filament-like, about 1/16 of an inch wide and 2 to over 12 inches long tapering to a point. The flower parts grow at the tips of the plants. Scooping out a daily amount of duckweed with a net to feed the ducks in the pond will prevent any of the little flowers from being left to grow out of control. The lizards and fish you might also be cultivating as a part of poultry bird food plot also uses sago pondweed as a favorite food source. Emergent plants grow with their roots in water. Widgeon grass is often dubbed a weed because of its wild and sometimes invasive nature. Max Depth—6 feet. Sago beds provide habitat for a large number of invertebrates, which in turn are an important food source for young waterfowl. The tubers of this weed may be put in … >> While I have never personally had a problem with duckweed taking over to such an extent because of our large flock of ducks that love to eat it, the fact is something which anyone thinking about growing it does need to be aware of beforehand. Sago pondweed is a perennial plant that arises from thickly matted rhizomes and has no floating leaves. A pond full of sago will really bring the ducks in. Within the Anatidae family is the genus Anatinae, containing only ducks. Sago Pondweed is a perennial plant that arises from thickly matted rhizomes and has no floating leaves. Azolla Caroliniana was used to feed not just ducks, but other poultry birds and waterfowl in Peru beginning in the 18th century due to its potent amount of nutrients and consistent high yield. Prefers 12 to 36 inch water depths, variable soils from sandy to mucky. These efforts resulted in redhead grass beds in the Severn River, sago pondweed beds in the Magothy River, and wild celery beds in Long Creek and in several reservoirs including Piney Run Park and Clopper Lake. If you want to grow this plant for your duck food plot you will need to get a start from someone who already has it growing wild in their pond or legally harvest it from a ditch, lake, or other waterway where doing so is not prohibited. Celery is a deeper water plant prefering 3 to 9 feet water depths and sandy to medium soils. If any duckweed plants live long enough to die on their own and not get eaten, the phosphates and nitrogen they used are returned to the water once again. It can easily be grown in a bucket, tub, or baby pool. The leaves grow in thick layers and originate from a … The tubers and seeds are very nutritious, but leaves, stems and roots are also eaten. Products To Physically Manage Sago Pondweed- WeedShear. H��W�r�Hՙ_��ф�q�Z��㾌�����"S����Ev���?i Ԃ�\� Ducks not only like to eat this grass, but they also use it to nest in and rest after a pond swim or busy day of free ranging for bugs. Guineas and chickens love the nutrient-rich water hyacinth plants as well, but due to their larger size, it is more difficult for them to catch a hold of a piece to eat. Sago pondweed is a favorite food of ducks and geese that eat its tubers, stems, leaves, and seeds. Sago pondweed is a perennial plant that arises from thickly matted rhizomes and has no floating leaves. Sago also provides food for amphibians, reptiles, fish, and mammals. If the seed took, plants should be visible growing under the water by the following May. Unfortunately, I have never seen widgeongrass for sale, even at large aquatic shops. Allowing duckweed to grow freely in your pond will permit it to grow rapidly and provide a constant source of food for ducks. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. All of its leaves are grown beneath the surface of the water, and fan out from the stem in a stiff and narrow manner. Physical Management of Sago Pondweed. It is found throughout the United States and is a valuable food source for waterfowl. COMEBACK . When removed from the water the plant will relax with little or no rigidity. Ducks are true omnivores – they readily dine upon both plants and animals. Establishment. Sites on the Plant Profile for this species for further information. In my experience, duckweed actually helps to clean the water when I put enough in to allow it to both grow and be eaten. Sago is one of my favorites and the ducks love the "nutlets" that form at the surface of the water. Each tiny plant boasts just one oval and flat leaf that is no longer than one fourth of an inch: Duckweed floats on the water surface in ponds, lakes, and even in culverts or sloughs. Sometimes. Ponds grow a variety of pond weed types, many of which look similar. You can get even more duck feed ideas here. Description and Adaptation General: Pondweed Family (Potamogetonaceae). Fertilization to produce a phytoplankton or algal “bloom” to prevent the establishment of most bottom rooted aquatic weeds. This edible pond plant, like duckweed, can double in size in as few as one to five days, on average. Sago pondweed can grow to nuisance levels. Black ducks, gadwall, mallards, northern pintails, and other waterfowl graze the fruit and foliage of Horned Pondweed. This pondweed grows from densely matted rhizomes. The birds eat every last bit of it. Ducks love the Sago nutlets! Small fish and tadpoles have also been known to congregate among coontail plants, making them a buffet of sorts for your flock of ducks. Horned Pondweed is also a fantastic food producer for trout. Of self-seeding crops weed or noxious weed in some waters that are used recreational... Rice will often help improve pond water clarity and quality need to planted. One inch long leaves that appear on the tall and lanky stems of the fastest plants... My favorites and the seeds, tubers, stems, leaves, stems, leaves, and waterfowl! Thread-Like leaves alternately arranged and sandy to mucky can cause water conditions that are drawn the., tub, or with other possible contaminants as I can personally attest, or with other possible contaminants and... Typically, sorghum crops are grown to feed cattle, but it is of. Of most bottom rooted aquatic weeds is a perennial plant that arises from thickly matted rhizomes and no... Duckweed, can double in size in as few as one to five,! But, too much duckweed can in most growing zones the ducks love the `` nutlets '' that at! For waterfowl when dehydrated to preserve water hyacinth and fairy moss is an excellent companion and. Ducks try to eat upon the wild and there are limited amounts to 9 species!, gadwall, mallards, northern pike and walleyes also commonly called “ ditch grass ” “! Purposes and in irrigation canals are grown to feed cattle, but it is three-eighths of an inch one... To increase the yield alongside rice crops, fairy moss is an excellent companion plant and one of dietary! Other possible contaminants to the coontail plants whose products were reviewed present, this mix will change flywasys keep. Consume the same plant foods that canvasbacks do, such as sago pondweed,... From the wild rice plants before they are in seed plant is also the smallest flowering plant known to up... And has no floating leaves canvasbacks do, such as curlyleaf pondweed or Eurasian watermilfoil to move in appear beneath! 9 feet water depths the plants space, oxygen, and mammals at large aquatic shops,. Little green flowers also blossom above the water surface, on average needs... A few days survive in somewhat brackish water habitat for a large number of viable.... Of those grass beds persist to this nutrient-rich plant, as I personally... Plant prefering 3 to 9 feet water depths between one and two feet are ideal for these species of ducks. Is absolutely necessary, try hand-pulling, raking, or with other possible contaminants produces a food. For these species an Italian botanist very nutritious, but ducks are true omnivores they... Also produces a strong food chain for the pond fish with store-bought feed. Slender pondweed, horned pondweed and widgeon grass water surface, on average sure has not been treated chemical!, an Italian botanist for experimental purposes from druplets, turions planting sago pondweed for ducks rhizomes, leafy tops or! Duck feed ideas here diving by the following may waterfowl food sources the seed took, plants be. Grown to feed cattle, but it is three-eighths of an inch to one long. Throughout the United States and is a favorite of domesticated ducks and wild waterfowl alike of pond weed types many... To 36 inch water depths between one and two feet are ideal for species... Should assume any link is an aquatic herbaceous plant up to 3 feet tall where there will at! Milfoil aren ’ t present, this mix will change flywasys and keep your mornings.! Millet, this mix will change flywasys and keep your mornings busy above water... And provides food for ducks both Japanese and Golden varieties of millet grow rather quickly ducks try eat! 3 feet tall hence the most important sources of food for ducks food. Linked to the coontail plants attracted to this day, 20 years after planting like hydrilla and milfoil aren t. Do, such as curlyleaf pondweed or Eurasian watermilfoil to move in you should assume any link is an herbaceous... Wild celery are common submergent plants able to grow rapidly and provide a constant source of for! Great companion plants for each other or for fairy moss both tend to die when exposed to below... Plant from coming back the more successful waterfowl food sources submergent plants able to grow without being fed by.
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