Insect Environment 11(1) p 40. Stamens equal, with the filament tube 2-3 mm long, the free portion of the filaments 1.2-3 mm long; anthers 5.5-7.5 mm long in long-styled flowers, 5.5-6 mm long in short-styled flowers, connivent, tapering, poricidal at the tips. esculentum (Dun.) Known as “aubergine” in Europe, the name “brinjal” is … The Latin name 'melongena' has its roots in the Italian name 'melanzane', which derives from 'mela insane' meaning 'mad apple'. Most commonly purple, the … County documented: documented acta hortic. evidence (herbarium specimen, photograph). Bot. The characters distinguishing S. melongena from the rest of the eggplant clade are mainly those directly associated with cultivation: larger fruit, altered fruit shape and color, and lack of prickles. For details, please check with your state. Ghana: Atropo (Ga language, Hall & Bukenya 47135). The Atlas of Florida Plants provides a source of information for the distribution of plants within the state and taxonomic information. A large fleshy kidney shaped berry is that ranges in color from green, to white, to purple-black when immature and when it should be eaten. Madagascar: Yundahl (Lunt 164). in part by the National Science Foundation. Solanum melongena, commonly known as eggplant or aubergine, belongs in the plant family Solanaceae, which also houses tomato, potato, nicotine and the poisonous deadly nightshade plant. The inflorescence is a dense, compact, branched head consisting of 50-100 flowers at the ends of branches. In global terms 90% of production is concentrated in China, India, Egypt, Turkey, and Japan (Lucier & Jerardo 2006). 102: 891–897. 2013). Eggplant (US, Australia, New Zealand, anglophone Canada), aubergine (UK, Ireland, Quebec) or brinjal (South Asia, South Africa) is a plant species in the nightshade family Solanaceae. State documented: documented Wetland Status. Cultivated in Uppsala, Sweden, Anonymous s. n. (lectotype, designated by Schönbeck-Temesy 1972: LINN! The fruit is cooked. Solanum melongena Monogr. Fruit a globular to ovoid, ellipsoid, or oblong to variously curved berry, 1 per infructescence, 3-20 cm long, 3-7 cm wide, the pericarp smooth, green, sometimes mottled or striped, white, pink, mauve, purple, or black when young, usually white or maroon at maturity, glabrous; fruiting pedicels 2.5-8 cm long, 2-4 mm in diameter at base, woody, pendulous, with 0(-5) prickles; fruiting calyx lobes elongating to 12-50 mm long, 1/4-1/3 the length of the mature fruit, often cup-shaped around the fruit in some cultivars, with 0(-30) prickles. Ovary stellate-pubescent in the upper 1/4; style ca. Accessed: 09-Oct-10. post Solanum melongena L. – eggplant Subordinate Taxa. History and iconography of eggplant. However, wild species remain largely unexploited for eggplant breeding. Solanum melongena is a cultivated to semi-wild herb with large shallowly-lobed leaves with rounded lobes and large white or purple flowers, grown for its large edible white, yellow, or purple fruits. 2013. Daunay, M.-C., and J. Janick. Family Name: Solanaceae: Synonyms: Solanum melongena var. Cultivated worldwide in tropical and subtropical areas (in the temperate zone under glass); the greatest diversity of landraces and cultivars is found in Asia (India, China and southeast Asia), with secondary centres in the Middle East and around the Mediterranean.. Solanum melongena: inflorescence with 1-3 flowers, corolla 30–50 mm wide, purple to light purple, and berry 5–30 cm long, black, purple, pink, brown, yellow, or white (vs. S. carolinense, with the inflorescence with mostly 3–6 flowers, corolla 20–30 mm wide, … Most of the s… Among the most important of those are potato (Solanum tuberosum); eggplant (S. melongena); tomato (S. unintentionally); has become naturalized. In Solanaceae III: taxonomy, chemistry, evolution, ed. 2013. Interpreting Wetland Status. 2/3 of the way to the base in S. aethiopicum). Sci. Foliage: Hairy leaves are ovate (egg-shaped) to ovate-oblong (elongated egg shape). The aubergine (eggplant) is the economically most important member of Solanum subgenus Leptostemonum with numerous commercial cultivars adapted to a range of tropical and temperate climates. As the fruit matures it gets stringy and bitter. Vegetables are also obtained from Brinjal (Solanum melongena) and Bell Pepper (Capsicum frutescens var. [Africa] Sierra Leone: ponibuji, okpotokpobo (Thomas 4357); kobo kobo, kupe (Thomas 456); kojoi (Mende language, Fisher 91). Early domesticates recorded from 300 BC in India and from 59 BC in China are likely to have been small, globular, and bitter (Wang et al. Solanum insanum is a member of the Eggplant Clade (Weese & Bohs, 2010; Vorontsova et al. [Asia] China: qie. Bot. the state. Modern understanding of eggplant origins has its origins in work done by members of Richard Lester’s group at the University of Birmingham (Lester & Hasan 1991). Solanum melongena is a cultivated to semi-wild herb with large shallowly-lobed leaves with rounded lobes and large white or purple flowers, grown for its large edible white, yellow, or purple fruits. Potato (Solanum tuberosum) and Tomato (Lycopersicon lycopersicum= Lycopersicum esculentum) are the most common articles for cooking. cylindricum S.P.Dikii Solanum melongena var. Take a photo and Nov. Regni Veg., Beih.. 16: 1-320. Seeds ca. The first reports of the use of Solanum melongena as a … Solanum melongena L., the cultivated Brinjal egg- plant, was originally described by Linnaeus (1753) who considered plants cultivated in Asia, Africa and America. Spec. For an account of cultivation history and early illustrations see Daunay & Janick (2007). Solanum melongena can be distinguished from S. incanum by its lack of prickles or rarely straight prickles (versus curved prickles, rarely straight prickles in S. incanum) and moderate pubescence making the plant green-brown or reddish as herbarium specimens (versus dense pubescence making the plant pale yellow in S. incanum). This division is to a certain extent artificial, but we prefer to maintain the cultivated and wild forms as separate species (see also Peralta et al. PLoS ONE 8(2): e57039. same length as the rays. Ancient Chinese literature reveals pathways of eggplant domestication. Vol. Found this plant? Wang, J.-X., T.-G. Gao, and S. Knapp. 2002). Syst. Young stems terete, moderately stellate-pubescent to glabrescent and unarmed, occasionally prickly, with porrect, translucent, sessile or occasionally stalked trichomes, the stalks to 0.2 mm long, the rays 8-15, 0.3-0.7 mm long, the midpoints ca. Solanum is among the largest genera, having more than 1500 described plant species (Chen, 1997). Solanaceae is a family of flowering plants that includes agricultural species such as tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), eggplant (S. melongena), pepper (Capsicum annuum), and potato (S. tuberosum). agreste S.P.Dikii Solanum melongena subsp. Kew: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. those considered historical (not seen in 20 years). Wild Solanum melongena is found in the area of Myanmar–Yunnan where it developed from the Solanum incanum complex, which had previously migrated into Asia from the Middle East and East Africa. Though the basic type of ... (Solanum melongena L.) bear study of large collection from many countries hermaphrodite flowers in clusters as well as singly showed that, in 21.5% of varieties, the stigma In this scenario ancestors of tropical African S. campylacanthum (groups A and B) gave rise to ancestors of southern African S. lichtensteinii (group D) and northern African S. incanum s.s. (group C). 1.2- Species Solanum melongena L. - Eggplant + Overview Eggplant (Solanum melongena) or aubergine is a species in genus Solanum L. in tribe Solaneae of nightshade grown for its edible fruit. image, please click it to see who you will need to contact. The transition from the vegetative to reproductive stage has been extensively investigated in tomato as i … to exist in the state, but not documented to a county within insanum (L.) Banfi, Galasso & Bartolucci Solanum melongena var. Your help is appreciated. grossum, vern. To reuse an All Characteristics, the edge of the leaf blade has lobes, or it has both teeth and lobes, the edge of the leaf blade is entire (has no teeth or lobes), the plant lives only a single year or less. 1990). Accessed: 09-Oct-10. Calyx 10-40 mm long in long-styled flowers, 7-10 mm long in short-styled flowers, moderately stellate-pubescent, with 0(-30) prickles, the lobes 5-17 mm long in long-styled flowers, 3.5-5 mm long in short-styled flowers, deltate to narrow-deltate, apically acute to long-acuminate. Discover thousands of New England plants. gigantea Alef. Lester also hypothesized that escape into the wild could have led to the formation of small prickly weeds S. insanum L. (sometimes called S. undatum and S. cumingii, groups E and F, here recognized as S. insanum, see also Knapp et al. 2013). Eggplant (Solanum melongena) is related to a large number of wild species that are a source of variation for breeding programmes, in particular for traits related to adaptation to climate change. Flowering and fruiting throughout the year. Genetics 161: 1713–1726. 173: 176-193. doi:10.1111/boj.12053. Peralta, I. E., D. M. Spooner, and S. Knapp 2008. Eggplant (aubergine) (English). Taxon 59: 49-56. With approximately 450 species, spiny Solanum species constitute the largest monophyletic group in the Solanaceae family, but a high-quality genome assembly from this group is presently missing. This plant has no children Legal Status. [LINN 248.28]). In India, this family is represented by 15 genera and 88 species. J. G. Hawkes, R. N. Lester, M. Nee, and N. Estrada, 369-387. It is a perennial plant which is commonly grown as an annual. Can you please help us? Solanum melongena subsp. 100-200 per berry, 2.9-3.2 mm long, 2.2-2.5 mm wide, flattened-reniform, orange-brown. Solanum carolinense: inflorescence with mostly 3–6 flowers, corolla 20–30 mm wide, light purple to white, and berry 1–1.5 cm long, yellow (vs. S. melongena, with the inflorescence with 1-3 flowers, corolla 30–50 mm wide, purple to light purple, and berry 5–30 cm long, black, purple, pink, brown, yellow, or … Native Plant Trust or respective copyright holders. Go Botany: Native Plant Trust morphological traits of the interspecific eggplant hybrid solanum melongena x solanum torvum. Sepal tube is bell-shaped 1 cm in diameter. More Accounts and Images; ARS Germplasm Resources Information Network (SOME) CalPhotos (SOME) … 2002; 29(1):84-86. donations to help keep this site free and up to date for 2002. It is closely related to and probably the wild progenitor of the cultivated eggplant Solanum melongena. Vorontsova, M. S., S. Stern, L. Bohs, and S. Knapp. 2020 The Go Botany project is supported 467, 155-162 Acta Hortic. These occur laterally (between two leaves) as the stems elongate. 2005. Flowers 4-8-merous, heterostylous and the plants andromonoecious, with the lowermost flower long-styled and hermaphrodite, the distal flowers short-styled and staminate. Eggplants belong to the nightshade family of vegetables, which also includes tomatoes, sweet peppers and potatoes. Wild relatives of the eggplant (Solanum melongena L.: Solanaceae): new understanding of species names in a complex group. Unlike most of the genus, the eggplant and its relatives are from the Old World; most eggplant wild relatives are from Africa. The eggplant was likely domesticated in Indo-China from the wild progenitor S. insanum, giving rise to the great variety of cultivars found there, including the more “primitive” prickly S. melongena (group G) and eventually the commercial cultivars (group H). The website also provides access to a database and images of herbarium specimens found at the University of South Florida and other herbaria. 1991. We depend on Uses. Inflorescence elongate racemes 4–7 cm. Like the fruit crop cultivars of S. aethiopicum, it often exhibits fasciation in the flowers with an increase in the number of flower parts up to 8 and straight thick styles not exserted further than 2 mm beyond the anthers. Ann. Homonyms Solanum melongena L. J. Linn. 2008. Solanum melongena is a domesticate derived from S. insanum, and belongs (with its wild relatives) in the Old World Clade of the spiny solanums (Leptostemonum; Weese & Bohs 2010). 84: 1-186. populations both exist in a county, only native status 2010. same length as the rays, unarmed on both surfaces; the primary veins 4-7 pairs, the tertiary venation visible on both surfaces; base cordate to obtuse; margins lobed, the lobes 2(-3) on each side, 0.5-2 cm long, extending 1/4-1/3 of the distance to the midvein, deltate, apically rounded; apex acute; petiole 1-10 cm long, 1/4-1/3(-2/3) of the leaf blade length, moderately stellate-pubescent to glabrescent, with 0-2 prickles. * Selvamuthukumaran T, Arivudainambi S (2005) Helicoverpa armigera Hübner on brinjal, Solanum melongena Linn. Solanum melongena in the Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN), U.S. Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service. The edible fruit of Solanum melongena L., belonging to the genus Solanum, is described by several names. Inflorescence: Solitary axillary, umbellate cyme, or helicoid cyme in Solanum. esculentum 'Saneness': Common Name: Brinjal, Eggplant, Aubergine (intentionally or Scratchpads developed and conceived by (alphabetical). The origin of Solanum melongena is in Asia, but the exact place of domestication in not clear (see references in Knapp et al. Lasiodiplodia theobromae (PHYORH) Also covers those considered historical (not seen 2013). Common name: Potato family or Night shade family Number of genera:This family includes 90 genera and about 3000 species Propagation type: Fruit (dehisced or intact) or seed Distribution: Solanaceae is a large family consisting of 90 genera distributed in tropical and temperate regions of the world. Knapp, S., M. S. Vorontsova, and J. Prohens. 0.9 cm long in long-styled flowers, broad and straight, moderately stellate-pubescent in the lower 1/2. The relationships of the African eggplant relatives are supported by results from molecular phylogenetics (Weese & Bohs 2010; Vorontsova et al. African spiny Solanum (subgenus Leptostemonum, Solanaceae): a thorny phylogenetic tangle. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0057039. Flora Zambesiaca. 2008); the elongated fruit type is not recorded until the 16th century (Daunay & Janick 2007). Leaves simple, the blades 10-23 cm long, 9-15 cm wide, 1.5-2 times longer than wide, ovate, chartaceous, drying discolorous; adaxial surface yellow-green to red-brown, moderately stellate-pubescent to glabrescent; abaxial surface glaucous, moderately stellate-pubescent to glabrescent, with porrect, sessile or stalked trichomes, the stalks to 0.2, the rays 5-8, 0.3-1 mm long, the midpoints ca. You must have JavaScript enabled to use this form. angustum S.P.Dikii Solanum melongena var. Conservation of gene function in the Solanaceae as revealed by comparative mapping of domestication traits in eggplant. 5.  On trouve Solanum melongena à l’état sauvage dans la région du Myanmar et du Yunnan où il s’est formé à partir du complexe Solanum incanum, qui avait précédemment migré vers l’Asie à partir du Proche-Orient et de l’Afrique de l’Est. Domestication took place in the area between India, Myanmar and China, where many primitive or weedy eggplant types are still found. Growth Form: Erect, branching herb up to 1.5 m tall. Anthropogenic (man-made or disturbed habitats). Solanum melongena is a cultivated species (eggplant) that was domesticated from a wild relative that lives Asia (Solanum incanum). Local Names. inflorescence varied within individual plants as well as between accessions. Soc. Show 2008 for a similar situation in the cultivated tomato, S. lycopersicum L., and its wild progenitor, S. pimpinellifolium L.); cultivated plants are in a completely different evolutionary environment with different selection pressures than their wild progenitors. 8, Part 4. All rights reserved. Taxonomy of wild tomatoes and their relatives (Solanum sections Lycopersicoides, Juglandifolia, Lycopersicon; Solanaceae). Solanum is a large (2000+ species) genus that includes numerous economically important crop species, most notably potato (S. tuberosum), tomato (S. lycopersicum), and eggplant (S. melongena). Except where otherwise noted, content on this site is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution CC BY Licence. Solanum incanum s.s. is then proposed to have dispersed into Arabia and Asia, possibly aided by man because of the value of its berries for tanning hides (Bitter 1923). Weese, T. L., and L. Bohs. Inflorescences apparently terminal or lateral, 6-15 cm long, not branched, with 1-8 flowers, 1-3 flowers open at any one time, moderately stellate-pubescent to glabrescent, unarmed; peduncle 0-80 mm long; pedicels 2-3.5 cm long in long-styled flowers, 0.8-2 cm long in short-styled flowers, erect to pendent, articulated at the base, moderately stellate-pubescent to glabrescent, with 0(-5) prickles; pedicel scars spaced 3-5 mm apart. Solanum melongena can be distinguished from S. aethiopicum by its mauve to purple corolla 2.5-5 cm wide and lobed for 1/4-1/3 of the way to the base (versus white corolla 0.8-1.8 cm wide and lobed for ca. same length as the rays or elongated to 1 mm, with minute simple hairs, the prickles 1-3 mm long, less than 0.5 mm wide at base, straight, acicular, yellow-orange to dark brown, glabrous, spaced 10-50 mm apart; bark of older stems glabrescent, green-brown to dark brown. They are mainly found in Central and South America. Bot. in 20 years). you. Also covers Nees Solanum melongena var. Background The common or brinjal eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) belongs to the Leptostemonum Clade (the “spiny” solanums) of the species-rich genus Solanum (Solanaceae). Solanum melongena is grown worldwide for its edible fruit. Chronica Horticulturae 47(3): 16-22. 2013) which is part of the Old World Clade of the spiny solanums (Leptostemonum; Levin et al. Gonçalves AE. Bitter, G. 1923. Shimla Mirch). 2006). 2. Increased anthocyanin in the stems, leaves and corollas are likely an accidental by-product of selection for fewer prickles, as the loci responsible are located near each other (Doganlar et al. Origin and domestication of the brinjal eggplant, Solanum melongena from S. incanum in Africa and Asia. To prevent automated spam submissions leave this field empty. Exact status definitions can vary from state to Repert. a sighting. depressum L. Solanum melongena var. Solana Africana. 2007. Genetic analysis of quantitative traits in brinjal (Solanum melongena L.) Veg. Solanum melongena : Source: Solanaceae of North America Update, database (version 2011) Acquired: 2011 : Notes: Updated for ITIS by the Flora of North America Expertise Network, in connection with an update for USDA PLANTS (2007-2010) Reference for: Solanum melongena : Source: The PLANTS Database, database (version 4.0.4) Acquired: 1996 : Notes: 467, 155-162 DOI: 10.17660/ActaHortic.1998.467.17 Solanaceae. Eggplant origins: out of Africa, into the Orient. Erect annual herb, 0.2-0.5 m, unarmed, occasionally prickly. Solanum melongena can be distinguished from S. insanum by its lack of prickles or acicular prickles never more than 0.5 mm wide, and restricted to calyces and sometimes also stems and petioles. Cultivars grown in Africa are seldom used by the local population and are mainly consumed by foreign visitors or exported to Europe (Lester et al. 2013). is shown on the map. state. Doganlar, S., A. Frary, M.-C. Daunay, R. N. Lester, and S. D. Tanksley. IDA-like genes were searched in relevant genera of the Solanaceae family including several species of Nicotiana (N. sylvestris, N. tomentosiformis, N. tabacum and N. benthamiana), and other crops of agronomic interest such as tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), potato (S. tuberosum), eggplant (S. melongena) and pepper (Capsicum annuum) (Table 1). Solanaceae, the nightshade, or potato, family of flowering plants (order Solanales), with 102 genera and nearly 2,500 species, many of considerable economic importance as food and drug plants. Within that group it belongs to the strongly supported Eggplant Clade (Vorontsova et al. Corolla 2.5-5 cm in diameter in long-styled flowers, 2.4-4 cm in diameter in short-styled flowers, white to mauve or purple, stellate, lobed for 1/4-1/2 of the way to the base, the lobes 10-15 mm long, 8-13 mm wide in long-styled flowers, 5-8 mm long and 8-13 mm wide in short-styled flowers, broad-deltate, spreading, not opening fully in long-styled flowers, sparsely stellate-pubescent abaxially, the trichomes porrect, sessile or stalked, the stalks to 0.2 mm, the rays 4-8, 0.2-0.7 mm long, the midpoints ca. Related Links. Mansfeld's World Database of Agriculture and Horticultural Crops - Solanum melongena Solanum melongena can be distinguished from S. cerasiferum by its obtuse to cordate leaf bases (versus attenuate leaf bases in S. cerasiferum) and rounded leaf lobes (versus rounded to acute leaf lobes in S. cerasiferum). L. E. All images and text © Each flower has five slender finely hairy sepals 2 to 3 mm long, five white to cream star-shaped petals each about 1 cm long, five elongate yellow stamens and a central stigma. Non-native: introduced to exist in the county by Copyright: various copyright holders. IV. Note: when native and non-native Lester, R. N., and S. M. Z. Hasan. By the National Science Foundation is … inflorescence: Solitary axillary, umbellate cyme, helicoid... Perennial plant which is commonly grown as an annual and South America and probably the wild progenitor of the solanums. Belongs to the strongly supported eggplant Clade ( Vorontsova et al melongena var ; tomato S.., A. Frary, M.-C. Daunay, R. N. Lester, R. N., and J. Prohens of... And potatoes note: when Native and non-native populations both exist in the Germplasm information... By Licence this Form Frary, M.-C. Daunay, R. N. Lester, and J. Prohens to date you. ( Chen, 1997 ) not seen in 20 years ) base in S. aethiopicum.... 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And solanum melongena inflorescence America is described by several names enabled to use this Form Solanum ( Leptostemonum..., is described by several names represented by 15 genera and 88 species peralta I.... Tomatoes and their relatives ( Solanum incanum ) melongena L. E. All images and text © Native... Uppsala, Sweden, Anonymous S. N. ( lectotype, designated by Schönbeck-Temesy 1972:!..., Arivudainambi S ( 2005 ) Helicoverpa armigera Hübner on brinjal, Solanum melongena.. Melongena var donations to help keep this site free and up to 1.5 m.! U.S. Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service ) and Bell Pepper ( Capsicum frutescens var S. aethiopicum ) and! Genus, the name “brinjal” is … inflorescence: Solitary axillary, umbellate cyme, or helicoid in... M, unarmed, occasionally prickly: taxonomy, chemistry, evolution ed. Varied within individual plants as well as between accessions relatives are from Africa and Estrada... Of wild tomatoes and their relatives ( Solanum melongena L. * Selvamuthukumaran T, Arivudainambi (... Agricultural Research Service primitive or weedy eggplant types are still found Hairy leaves ovate! Cultivated in Uppsala, Sweden, Anonymous S. N. ( lectotype, by! Enabled to use this Form the strongly supported eggplant Clade ( Weese Bohs. Wild relative that lives Asia ( Solanum melongena L., belonging to the strongly supported eggplant (. 1997 ) domestication took place in the Germplasm Resources information Network ( GRIN ) U.S.. The state and taxonomic information long in long-styled flowers, broad and straight, stellate-pubescent. New understanding of species names in a county within the state the county by evidence ( herbarium specimen, )...

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