Estimating diversity of Santalum album accessions using Isozymes as a tool. The Karnataka State F… lanceolatum was undertaken to elucidate (i) self-incompatibility (ii) intraspecific cross-compatibility in the species, and (iii) interspecific cross-compatibility with S. album and S. austrocaledonicum. soil, compost, cocopeat, burnt rice husk and charcoal, in, 25:15:50:5:5 ratio, sieved with 6X6 holes/sq. Responding to these threats, many initiatives, though recently, have been launched. The forest type of the study sites comprise of southern dry mixed deciduous forest. genetic transformation. In Kerala, sandalwood trees are growing in natural habitat in an area of 63 sq. 211 forest guards are appointed for the protection of these sandalwood trees. and Joshi, G. 2004. of being shaded out or overtopped by taller, faster growing trees on such sites. Sandalwood oil is extracted from the heartwood by steam distillation. ���d�R�cB� �{� Sandalwood is often cited as one of the most expensive woods in the world. sandalwoods from Madras. coiling and are easy for handling and transportation. Hawaiian sandalwood species are small trees that occur naturally in open, drier forest and woodland communities. Research Laboratory, CSIR, Jammu Tawi. 0000020201 00000 n vegetative reproduction as the reasons for this. The colour of matured leaves, varies from bluish to greenish yellow (Srimathi. “Sandal” is derived from Chandana (Sanskrit) and was known as a wood and oil in Hindu, Buddhist, Muslim, Sufi and Zoroastrian religious traditions and medicines. becomes rough with deep vertical cracks as tree matures. Sandalwood oil is extracted from the woods for use. The situation in Tamil Nadu is also very similar and the natural population has substantially reduced. The woods are heavy, yellow, and fine-grained, and unlike many other aromatic woods, they retain their fragrance for decades. from Karnataka, Chitteri and Javadi Hills from Tamil Nadu, Marayoor from Kerala, Koraput from Orissa, Seoni from, Madhya Pradesh and Horsley Hills (Chittoor East) from. A., Mafatlal, K. M., Deepak, S., Tony, Sandalwood: basic biology, tissue culture, and. active participation in protecting each others trees. disease, heartwood rot and borer infestation (Srimathi, A total of 79 plus trees were identified From different. The chromosomes of both karyotypes showed centromeres predominantly in a median position and a few submedian centromeres, of 2B type, of a primitive and symmetrical nature. Controlled pollination using 13 genotypes of Santalum and Sarma, C.R. 0000006310 00000 n Watch Queue Queue. Indian Forester 41:123-, Sandal and its products. 0000012939 00000 n The participatory approach in the northern part of the CYP has resulted in the establishment of important S. lanceolatum genetic resources that will be used to underpin the development of an industry: (1) sandalwood demonstration plantings (Bamaga and Lockhart River); (2) clonal seed orchard (Bamaga); (3) conservation enrichment plantings (Bamaga) and (4) two progeny trials (Bamaga). Reproductive biology of three commercially valuable, inflorescences, breeding systems, and interspecific. 2007. Conference, F.R.I. Forest Bulletin Number 6, Puran Singh. In fact, all four of the presently recognized spe­ cies still exist. Rao (1959) while discussing the future of tree genetics in, India, emphasized that heartwood formation and its. 1998. Breeding behaviour, Sandalwood Resource Development, Research and, Trade in the Pacific and Asian Region: proceedings of, the regional workshop, pp. The proposed system is capable of monitoring and controlling the sandalwood plants, intelligently depends on the climate conditions and pre-defined rules. 2010. Genetic relationships within the genotypes were evaluated by generating a dissimilarity matrix based on Ward's method (Squared Euclidean distance). Identification of, provenances of sandal in India for genetic, conservation. Srimathi, R. A., Kulkarni, H. D. and Venkatesan, K. R. 1983. In a recent study on, the first time a mixoploid was found (2n = 2x = 20 and 2n =, 4x = 40). Preliminary, from a 14-year-old plantation at Kununurra, Western. The CO2 extraction method is a latest technique for getting essential oils from plant and its parts. 0000169870 00000 n Ma, G.H., Bunn, E., Zhang, J.F. genotypes by using various criteria such as growth rate, heartwood per cent, oil content, resistance to spike. Major Causes Water Management GM Crops Socio-Cultural Factors 3. 5,000-00 Cost of planting, transportation, soil work, pit formation, watering etc., Harbaugh, D.T., Oppenheimer, H.L., Wood, K.R., Wagner, W.L. International demand for sandalwood is estimated to the 10,000 mt per year. African Journal, Balasubramanian, P., Aruna, R., Anbarasu, C. and, Santhoshkumar, E. 2011. A core collection of 21 selected individuals revealed the same diversity of the entire population. and Colleges, Dehra Dun. 2003. (Mitchell, 1941; Laurie, 1941 and Venkata Rao, 1941). Kenya Forestry Research Institute has undertaken research to generate information on Sandalwood growing. particularly in the area of taxonomy of the genera. Water or steam is not used in this process. It has been reported that commercially utilisable Sandalwood trees of girth more than 30 cm to a large extent is absent in its natural area of distribution in both the states. These markets combined generate almost $40 million annually for the Western Australian economy3. •Aromatic oils produced from sandalwood trees are one of the world’s most valuable tree products. Sandalwood is not an exacting species, and the tree grows well under varied set of conditions such, as from sea level up to 1800 m altitude, moderate rainfall of, 600 to 1600mm, in cool climate with long periods of dry, weather (Troup, 1921). Eds. size and extent of heartwood. From tree improvement perspective, documenting, variability in a tree species is a pre requisite before, initiating any tree improvement programme. involved in the commercial cultivation and collection of East Indian sandalwood Cultural Importance: Sandalwood use dates back four millennia. In Hawai‘i, there was a general belief in the early part of the 20th century that sandalwood had become extinct (St. John 1948). The cluster analysis indicated that sandalwood germplasm within India constitutes a broad genetic base with values of genetic dissimilarity ranging from 15 to 91%. but this would also generate huge foreign revenue. Skip navigation Sign in. sandalwood growing states of South India, namely. Sandal wood (Santalum album) is the source of world famous Indian sandal wood oil, which is extensively used in the perfumery industry. momentum during 1980 to 1984 as evident in the table 1. Isozyme variation. 0000143711 00000 n as East Indian Sandalwood stands out for its highly valued, oil and wood. The, flowers occur in axillary or terminal cymose panicles that, are shorter than leaves and the floral organs develop in, acropetal succession. Thus it can be concluded that the cultivation of sandalwood absolutely requires the host plant. Variability in flowering, and fruit size has already mentioned. However, they stress that the occurrence, of polyploidy and mixoploidy needs further investigation. Even though there is definite geographical isolation and, considerable morphological variation between, species, reports indicate that viable hybrid progeny has, The fruits are succulent drupes, 0.3 to 0.5 inch in, diameter and purplish black when fully mature. 0000016633 00000 n It has modified roots called haustoria which penetrate host plants and draw nutrition from them. Tree, improvement studies in Sandalwood have to be given, impetus, apart from the only survey that was carried out in, late 70s, it is essential to carry out extensive resurvey of, Sandalwood population and assess the present status. Variation, in heartwood oil composition of young sandalwood. Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN, 2007). It also adapts well in different type, of soils like sand, clay, red soils, laterite loam and even in, black cotton soils, but has a preference for red ferruginous, loam with varying fertility (Singh, 1995). The potential to incorporate sandalwood into existing Indigenous land management plans and further extend this into commercial plantings provides the opportunity to utilise an endemic tree species for economic development. Bois de santal (French); Sandelholz (German); Sandalo (Spanish); Sandalo (Italy); Sandalo branco, (Portugese); behman surkh, sandal-abiyaz, sandale-abiaz, (Arabic); Sandal suped, Sandale-suped (Persian); Sandal, safaid (Urdu); vitt sandelträd (Swedish); Cendana, (Indonesia), Ai nitu (Sumba), Hau meni (Timor), Chendana, The most common and widely accept fragrant tree, referred to as Sandalwood tree is from the family, Santalaceae consists of 29 genera with ~400 species, out. %%EOF 1-13. Publishing Company, New Delhi, pp.327-353. Sandalwood oil is extracted from the woods for use. Sandalwood is found distributed all over the country with over 90% of the area in Karnataka and Tamil Nadu. 1. The information has been packaged as guidelines presented in this booklet. Tamla, H.T., Cornelius, J. and Page, T. 2012. 0000001431 00000 n are hemi-parasitic trees, the heartwood of which produces valuable aromatic oil. They also found predominance of chromosomes, with centromeres in a median position and a few, submedian centromeres. It has been observed that root, trainers are better compared to polybags as they avoid root. The shoot-tip meristems of some S. album individuals were found to be mixoploid, i.e. The average production of Sandalwood in Karnataka between the years 1960–1961 and 1964–1965 was 2287.8 tons which drastically reduced to 366.74 tons by the end of the last five years of the twentieth century (1995–1996 to 1999–2000). */���3�����87�� F�d���Y�ZVS"P,j1� 2�J����1���{�;���@���w=���� J!�- (http://www.thehindubusinessline, .com/news/marayoor-sandalwood-auction-fetches-, record-40-cr/article7777529.ece dated 18th October. Phylogeny and. In a bid to conserve the remaining germplasm, biotechnology provides a feasible, and effective, means of propagating members of this genus. All rights reserved. The seedlings are available with HFRC at the rate of Rs 8/- each. Time immemorial, Sandalwood has been an integral part of the culture and heritage of India. 4. 1. The trees are maturing just as prices soar amid a production shortfall from the biggest producer India and rising demand from China. Presently, Kerala has one of, the largest concentrated patches of natural Sandalwood, forest existing in the country and this patch is found in the, Marayoor, Sandal Division. It was estimated that, ~90% of the population was found in these two states, covering an approximate area of 8300 sq.kms.

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