Well when swimming is the only way to get to their next meal some big cats in Botswana have adapted to the life aquatic. 2009), and prey assemblage (Hayward et al. Lion kills of waterbuck are significantly closer to water points than expected based on chance simply because this prey species is not randomly distributed over the landscape. The lions of the Kalahari Desert have become a popular interest and in researching the behaviour of this specific group, it has become clear that they are well defined from their relatives residing in more “moderate” environments, such as the safe havens of South African Game Reserves. 2005). 2008). Grant C. C. Deveraux B. J.. Valeix M. Fritz H. Matsika R. Matsvimbo F. Madzikanda H.. Van Bommel L. bij de Vaate M. D. de Boer W. F. Iongh H. H. de. 2008; Ripple and Beschta 2006, 2007). Operating eight water bowsers, five of which have a capacity of 20,000 litres, we have the ability to rapidly transport 124,000 litres of water at any one time. 1995). Apparently, herbivores are distributed over Klaserie indifferent of their feeding type. Predation risk from lions (Panthera leo) has been linked to habitat characteristics and availability and traits of prey. The larger buffalo also was selected, but in general, larger species were avoided. This variable is a better classification of the spatial distribution of a species around water than classifying the species as either water-dependent or water-independent. The 3 species with the lowest Jacobs index were the 2 smallest species (impala and porcupine [Hystrix cristata]) and the heaviest (white rhinoceros [Cer atotherium simum]). It is through the help of all … Tsavo Water Update Read More » 2008). Lion kills were closer to rivers and to artificial water points than expected by random distribution of the kills. Surface water is constantly replenished through precipitation, and lost through evaporation and seepage into ground water supplies. Notes: Years with missing data left empty. 2009; Sinclair 2003), might have a keystone role in the composition of savanna systems (Van Langevelde et al. Buffalo, zebra, and wildebeest modify their activity patterns and habitat use in relation to lion predation risk (Fischhoff et al. Water use can include water used and then returned to its source (renewable resource). 2002). No significant effects of digestion type of the prey species (Wald χ21= 2.635, P > 0.10), their feeding type (Wald χ22 = 4.88, P > 0.05), their body mass (Wald χ21 = 0.95, P > 0.05), or season (Wald χ21= 0.53, P > 0.10) on distance of the kills to water points were observed. http://earthwise.bgs.ac.uk/index.php/Hydrogeology_of_Cameroon Distance of lion kills (n = 215) from water of random locations (white boxes) and lion kill locations (gray boxes). A. F. Bini L. M.. Redfern J. V. Grant R. Biggs H. Getz W. M.. Sinclair A. R. E. Mduma S. Brashares J. We thank the staff of Klaserie Nature Reserve for assisting with data collection. 2003). Lion kills were spatially clustered and were significantly different from a random distribution (Z = −39.67, P < 0.01). Lions have adapted and go through patterns of panting in such a way as to cool down blood, which is then transferred to the brain. Differences in prey selection (Jacobs index) could not be explained by the water dependency of the species (odds-ratio: rs = −0.123, n = 12, P > 0.05) or the density of the species (rs = −0.212, n = 12, P > 0.05). Water dependency of the species affected the kill location, with water-dependent species killed closer to water than species not dependent on water. (2005). Residual analysis indicated that the differences between observed and expected values were significant for each species individually (P < 0.05), and that lions strongly selected for buffalo and giraffe. 2005). The Black Umfolozi River is a good area to keep an eye out for cats, there is lots to eat around the water. 2008). Currently Matson is the host of the weekly radio show, “National Geographic Weekend.” Conducting interviews from the studio and from the field, Matson connects with some of the greatest explorers and adventurers on the planet to transport listeners to the far corners of the world and to the hidden corners of their own backyards. Herbivore distribution patterns around rivers and artificial surface water sources in a large African savanna park, The role of water abundance, thermoregulation, perceived predation risk and interference competition in water access by African herbivores, Behavioral adjustments of African herbivores to predation risk by lions: spatiotemporal variations influence habitat use, Factors affecting livestock predation by lions in Cameroon, Effects of fire and herbivory on the stability of savanna ecosystems, Foraging behaviour and hunting success of lions in Queen Elizabeth National Park, Uganda, The abiotic template and its associated vegetation pattern, Habitat quality and heterogeneity influence distribution and behavior in African buffalo (, The relationship between molar morphology and ecology within, Estimating bat fatality at a Texas wind energy facility: implications transcending the United States–Mexico border, Delayed mortality of males in Thylamys bruchi, a semelparous marsupial from the Monte Desert, Argentina, About the American Society of Mammalogists, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Receive exclusive offers and updates from Oxford Academic, Copyright © 2020 American Society of Mammalogists. You can lead a cat to water, but can you make him swim? It furthers the University's objective of excellence in research, scholarship, and education by publishing worldwide, This PDF is available to Subscribers Only. Predation is known to influence the behavior of prey species (Fischhoff et al. Because the reserve is rather small, the road network is very dense, and foot patrols cover the full extent of the reserve, even small carcasses are recorded and the bias for certain species in the lion kill database is minimized. Moran's I measures the autocorrelation between paired observations in relation to the distance (the “lag” distance) between these observations. However, the lower the odds-ratio (representing species with high water dependency), the smaller the distance of the lion kills to water (Wald χ21 = 9.15, P < 0.005). People with no access to a safe drinking water source in Zambia. Selection or avoidance of prey in our study is similar for all species to the results obtained by Hayward and Kerley (2005), except for the porcupine, which was negatively selected in our study. Seasonal Water Sources. We used the odds-ratio, a continuous variable calculated by Redfern et al. 1994; Palomares et al. In some areas, livestock predation remains a severe problem. Redfern et al. 2007; Prins and Iason 1989; Sinclair and Arcese 1995; Winnie et al. Lions in Cameroon are different from all of those lions from the southern part of Africa. We found that lion kills in Klaserie were located closer to water than expected based on a random distribution of kills. Valeix et al. The presence of natural water sources therefore can influence the location of lion kill sites (Hopcraft et al. Privacy Notice |  Sustainability Policy |  Terms of Service |  Code of Ethics, Boyd Matson, in his work for National Geographic, has been bitten, scratched, or pooped on, and occasionally kissed by most of the creatures found at your local zoo. Expected values were calculated based on the average of the annual abundance estimates for each prey species from aerial surveys carried out between 2002 and 2006. This analysis yields chi-square values for each prey species, and the discrepancies between observed and expected values (residuals) were tested for each of the individual species when the overall chi-square test reported significant deviations from expectation (Siegel and Castellan 1988). Large differences in the composition of lion prey are due to differences in prey availability, prey mass, lion sex and pride structure, and cultural differences, that is, differences in prey choice between prides through specialization (Funston et al. Sightings of Lion in the Hluhluwe Umfolozi vary according to various factors. Moreover, impacts of lion predation differ among prey species, with medium-sized species being selected (Owen-Smith and Mills 2008; Sinclair et al. 2007); hence we expect that kills of grazers will be closer to artificial water points and those of browsers and mixed feeders closer to rivers. LION WALKS Due to increasing controversy about the ethics of lion walks and certain other "animal encounter" activities and the practices of those offering them within the Victoria Falls area, Zambiatourism.com will no longer be featuring such activities. Browsing and grazing species, especially impala (Prins and Van Der Jeugd 1993) or wildebeest (Holdo et al. We expect that in areas with a larger water availability gradient, the dependency of prey species on water will influence their predation risk more strongly. 2007; Prins and Iason 1989; Sinclair and Arcese 1995). 2003), and can thereby trigger ecosystem cascades (Carpenter et al. In order to find water in the Kalahari Desert, they use a specific root called the “bi! The Kalahari Desert is no exception. Lion kills were significantly closer to water than expected based on a random distribution of the kills (generalized linear model; Wald χ21 = 12.06, P < 0.001; Fig. Box 6, 7500 AA Enschede, The Netherlands, Amarula Elephant Research Programme, School of Biological and Conservation Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa, Feeding habitat selection by hunting leopards, Elk alter habitat selection as an antipredator response to wolves, Distribution and diversity of wildlife in northern Kenya in relation to livestock and permanent water points, Habitat use and movements of plains zebra (, The influence of lion predation on the population of common large ungulates in the Kruger National Park, South African Journal of Wildlife Research, Factors affecting the hunting success of male and female lions in the Kruger National Park, Hunting by male lions: ecological influences and socio-ecological implications, Fractal geometry predicts varying body size scaling relationships for mammal and bird home ranges, Testing predictions of the prey of lion derived from modeled prey preferences, Carrying capacity of large African predators: predictions and tests, Grazers, browsers, and fire influence the extent and spatial pattern of tree cover in the Serengeti, Planning for success: Serengeti lions seek prey accessibility rather than abundance, The relationship between rainfall, lion predation and population trends in African herbivores, Predator–prey relationships: the impact of lion predation on wildebeest and zebra populations, Winter habitat selection by lynx and coyotes in relation to snowshoe hare abundance, Spatial dynamics of lion and their prey along an environmental gradient, Manifold interactive influences on the population dynamics of a multispecies ungulate assemblage, Predator–prey size relationships in an African large-mammal food web, Spatial ecology of Iberian lynx and abundance of European rabbits in southwestern Spain, Herbivore population crashes and woodland structure in East Africa, Towards an integrated computational tool for spatial analysis in macroecology and biogeography, Surface-water constraints on herbivore foraging in the Kruger National Park, South Africa, Linking a cougar decline, trophic cascade, and catastrophic regime shift in Zion National Park, Restoring Yellowstone's aspen with wolves, River heterogeneity: ecosystem structure, function and management, The Kruger experience; ecology and management of savanna heterogeneity, Alternative dynamic regimes and trophic control of plant succession, Nonparametric statistics for the behavioral sciences. 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