First, we performed a comparative correlation between the PCI values for the two- and three-month temporal intervals to understand specific variations. 2018, Article ID 1849050, 18 pages, 2018. https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/1849050, 1Department of Geography and Environment, Jahangirnagar University, Savar, Dhaka 1342, Bangladesh, 2Department of Geography, College of Social Science, Kongju National University, Singwan-Dong, Gongju-si, Chungnam-do 32588, Republic of Korea. Bangladesh. Two-month PCI changes in different periods from long-term mean PCI (1980–2011) (series 1 = 1980–1989, series 2 = 1990–1999, and series 3 = 2000–2011). Various studies have indicated due to climate change rainfall pattern in Bangladesh is most likely to change which would have adverse impacts on lives and livelihoods of millions of people [4]. Rainfall on . Precipitation intensity, amounts, and patterns are expected to change, and extreme weather events such as droughts and floods are likely to occur more frequently [7]. The observed rainfall data were available from two sources BMD and BWDB. Anarul Haque Mondol et al. Curated pages dedicated to humanitarian themes and specific humanitarian crises. At a two-month scale, significant changes were identified during transition periods where PCI values were lower from 2000 to 2011 than those in the earlier decades. March, the first month of the spring, in Cox's Bazar, is a tropical month, with average temperature varying between 20.7°C (69.3°F) and 30.9°C (87.6°F).The ideal sea water temperature of 26.5°C (79.7°F) and only 3 rainfall days, with 34.7mm (1.4") of accumulated rainfall, make March the best time for swimming and other water activities. ABSTRACT Spatial distribution of categorical monsoon rainfall used in Bangladesh Meteorological Department (BMD) over Bangladesh during 1985-2014 using daily rainfall is accomplished in this study. Although there is no single research method that can comprehensively examine changes in precipitation over time, it is worth considering how different methods can be applied to certain situations [24]. International Journal of Integrated Sciences & Technology 3 (2018) 16-23 Study of a Heavy Rainfall Event in Bangladesh Using Global Satellite Mapping of Precipitation Data J. Hossain*, A. T. M. S. Azam, M. A. Khatun and M. Rafiuddin Department of Physics, Bangladesh University of … Policy implications for livelihood development,”, F. Ndamani and T. Watanabe, “Influences of rainfall on crop production and suggestions for adaptation,”, M. Gocic, S. Shamshirband, Z. Razak, D. Petković, S. Ch, and S. Trajkovic, “Long-term precipitation analysis and estimation of precipitation concentration index using three support vector machine methods,”. Find latest updates on global humanitarian responses, Bangladesh Flood Forecasting and Warning Centre, Bangladesh: Floods and Landslides - Apr 2018, NPM Bangladesh Round 17: Thematic Maps (12 May 2020), Joint Response Plan for Rohingya Humanitarian Crisis - Final Report (March-December 2018), Bangladesh: Displacement due to embankment collapse - Emergency Plan of Action Final Report DREF n° MDRBD021. Dhaka has dry periods in January, November and December. Bangladesh is renowned for agricultural-based country where about 80% of people are directly or indirectly involved in agricultural activities as their main profession [21]. [22] used the PCI to show an irregular precipitation distribution across Bangladesh, especially in the southeast region, and other trend analysis studies have examined long-term changes in precipitation over Bangladesh [30, 31]. The regional differences in the mean PCI using the Kruskal–Wallis test during 1980–1989, 1990–1999, and 2000–2011 in Bangladesh. Dhaka, Bangladesh - Monthly weather averages including average high and low Temperature, Precipitation, Pressure, Wind Charts to assist you in planning your travel, holiday or an outdoor activity at Dhaka, Bangladesh Maximum temperature yesterday: 78 °F (at 3:00 pm) Minimum temperature yesterday: 65 °F (at 6:00 am) Average temperature yesterday: 71 °F Normal for June. In the Bay of Bengal, the hydrological cycle is dominated by very high spatial and temporal variability; and predictions for the end of the 21st century show a high degree of uncertainty [15]. A positive trend in annual rainfall and negative trend in winter rainfall (Figures 9 and 10) means that the rainfall of Bangladesh is concentrating in the monsoon and premonsoon months [5]. Temperature in Bangladesh averaged 24.82 celsius from 1796 until 2015, reaching an all time high of 29.79 celsius in May of 1979 and a record low of 14.79 celsius in January of 1819. It is mainly focused on the development of models for long term rainfall prediction of Bangladesh divisions and districts (Weather Stations). Bangladesh has acquired credible capacity in disaster management. The escalating dengue situation in Bangladesh has been emerging as a serious public health problem in terms of morbidity and mortality. Data. The PCI on a supraseasonal scale demonstrated a complex precipitation distribution across the study area. The annual PCI values were moderate with some irregularities (Figure 2). The climate is tropical in Dhaka. Therefore this indicates that the irregularities of Rainfall during Winter Season are high (Figure 11). During the AMJ period, which generally exhibited a moderate distribution, only the north–east region showed a uniform distribution (Figures 6(d)–6(f)). The data was provided as the daily total rainfall in millimetres. Early rainfall during this period can sometimes cause flooding. Bangladesh is one of the world’s most vulnerable countries for climate change. Higher PCI values were mainly identified in the eastern region and have strong seasonal influences, whereas lower PCI values were mostly observed in the northern region. The purpose of this study was to analyze precipitation concentration rates in different regions of Bangladesh using the precipitation concentration index (PCI) and the inverse distance weighting method. Only in a few humid months per year the intense of rain is a bit higher. The PCI values were calculated on an annual scale for each grid point using data from all stations based on the equations of Oliver [27]:where is the total precipitation in month i. Only the northern and eastern regions had PCI values that fell within the irregular distribution class (Figures 4(g)–4(i)). Annual to seasonal PCI changes in different periods from long-term mean PCI (1980–2011) (series 1 = 1980–1989, series 2 = 1990–1999, and series 3 = 2000–2011). We collected 46 years (1971-2016) climate data on monthly average temperature and monthly average rainfall from the Bangladesh Meteorological Department, Dhaka. First of all, downloaded the Netcdf file of the data and then crack the NC file by using ArcMap software. Data and Resources. For most decades, the three month PCI values showed variations in precipitation concentration, with the exception of JFM and JAS during 1990–1999 and 1980–1989. The authors declare that there are no conflicts of interest regarding the publication of this paper. This page includes a chart with historical data for Bangladesh Average Precipitation. For short time periods, precipitation was strongly linked to season. The three month PCI showed differences in mean precipitation concentrations for most decades, although for the monsoon period (JAS), we observed no differentiations in mean precipitation concentration across the country. List of alerts, ongoing and past disasters covered by ReliefWeb. RAINFALL SITUATION UP TO 0900 HOURS ON 06-06-2013 (in millimeter) Location. Six-month PCI of JJ for (d) 1980–1989; (e) 1990–1990; (f) 2000–2011. Finally, we analyzed the annual, supraseasonal, seasonal, and three- and two-month PCI values using the Kruskal–Wallis test to identify statistical significance among the decades. Several straightforward indicators can be used to assess variability and analyze hydrological processes [26]. Moreover, same conditions were found during Monsoon periods. The inverse distance weighting (IDW) is an established deterministic method for the precipitation concentration index mapping and one of the most frequently used deterministic models in spatial interpolation [35–37]. The PCI can be used as an indicator of hydrological hazard risks such as floods and droughts [44]. Therefore, this indicates that the irregularities of Rainfall during Monsoon Season (June- September) are less. For the spatial analysis of precipitation, we interpolated data from all weather stations onto a regular grid. Xu, and Z. Zhang, “Observed changes of drought/wetness episodes in the Pearl River basin, China, using the standardized precipitation index and aridity index,”, S. Shahid, “Rainfall variability and the tends of wet and dry periods in Bangladesh,”, M. Rafiuddin, H. Uyeda, and M. N. Islam, “Characteristics of monsoon precipitation systems in and around Bangladesh,”, M. W. Rand, “Objective criteria for the evaluation of clustering methods,”, T. R. Karl and R. W. Knight, “Secular trends of precipitation amount, frequency, and intensity in the United States,”, M. De Luis, J. C. Gonzalez-Hidalgo, M. Brunetti, and L. A. Longares, “Precipitation concentration changes in Spain 1946–2005,”, J. E. Oliver, “Monthly precipitation distribution– a comparative index,”, P. Michiels, D. Gabriels, and R. Hartmann, “Using the seasonal and temporal precipitation concentration index for characterizing the monthly rainfall distribution in Spain,”, H. Apaydin, G. Erpul, I. Bayranmin, and D. Gabriels, “Evaluation of indices for characterizing the distribution and concentration of precipitation: a case for the region of Southeastern Anatolia Project, Turkey,”, M. K. Ahmed, M. S. Alam, A. H. M. Yousuf, and M. M. Islam, “A long-term trend in precipitation of different spatial regions of Bangladesh and its teleconnections with El Nino/southern oscillation and Indian Ocean dipole,”, K. Burkart and P. Kinney, “Is precipitation a predictor of mortality in Bangladesh? When analyzed on a six months basis, the PCI values of the JJ period for the decades 1980–1989, 1990–1999, and 2000–2011 showed significant irregularities. These 2 years are selected on the basis of full data from all sources: model, satellite and gauge data were available. The north–west and south–southeast areas had higher PCI values (>20). In a year, the rainfall is 2022 mm | 79.6 inch. The decadal analysis showed that the annual PCI values varied over time and exhibited an irregular distribution. In this study, we considered the rainfall distribution over different spatial and temporal scales from 1989 to 2011. Here you can query, map, compare, chart and summarize key climate-related information. Daily Rainfall Data 1007. For the seasonal and three-month analyses, the values were generally moderately irregular. Significant changes in the PCI values between 1980 and 1989 and between 1990 and 1999 were found for the extreme northwestern and southeastern regions. The results showed that precipitation concentrations were mostly irregular when rainfall was concentrated within two to four months of the year. Open job opportunities in the humanitarian field. Precipitation and its intensity are important factors on the Bangladesh climate for agricultural production [22]. Daily maximum temperature and normal daily rainfall data were collected for north-western region of Bangladesh for the period 1981-2008. A number of climate change related strategies, plans and actions have been formulated and mitigation measures have been operationalized. Learn more about ReliefWeb, leading online source for reliable and timely humanitarian information on global crises and disasters since 1996. 6 miles and an atmospheric pressure of 1014 mb. Modified Date: 2018-05-10. Get the monthly weather forecast for Dhaka, Dhaka, Bangladesh, including daily high/low, historical averages, to help you plan ahead. Md. Rainfall-related hazards and disasters (like drought and flood) require farmers to implement measures in altering the cropping system, planting or sowing times, crop varieties, and change crop types in the country [43]. The groundwater, however, provides adequate storage to compensate for annual variations in rainfall and stream flow. The study of precipitation concentration intensity on seasonal variation is essential for agriculture, disaster mitigation, and water resources planning and management in Bangladesh in the context of global climatic change [23]. Differentiation was observed for MAMJ in all decades except 2000–2011. Most climate research has suggested that annual rainfall will increase and winter rainfall will decrease in South Asia owing to global climate change [40, 41]. The north–west and south–east regions had strong irregularities during 2000–2011, while the shorter JJ and JD six-month periods showed significant and moderate irregularities, respectively. Data were collected from the BMD from 1980 to 2011 and used as the input data for PCI analysis. The seasonal analysis showed that the JASO period exhibited a uniform subtropical monsoon climate; therefore, the three-month JAS period also showed a uniform distribution. Rainfall prediction is very important for the Bangladesh … Planning and Implementation: PMO, Cabinet, BCC,BBS and SID Technical Support: Developer Credits Latest humanitarian reports, maps and infographics and full document archive. However, there are 6 stations During winter (NDJF), strong irregularities occurred in all decades (1980–1989, 1990–1999, and 2000–2011) while, irregular distributions occurred in the south–west and north–east regions during 1980–1989 and 1990–1999 (Figures 5(a)–5(c)). Dhaka, Bangladesh visibility is going to be around 10 km i.e. Precipitation concentration varies within the country, and the mean annual precipitation varies from a maximum of 5,690 mm in the northeast to a minimum of 1,110 mm in the west [21]. To better understand rainfall variation, the country was divided into four regions: north-northwest, central, east-southeast, and south-southwest. Precipitation concentration changes were lower from 2000 to 2011 than in the earlier decades. ICCESD-2018-4584-3 data. ReliefWeb Labs projects explore new and emerging opportunities to improve information delivery to humanitarians. 08 Jul 2018. In other words, intensive rainfall is considered to be uniform if it occurs throughout the time period, but if it occurs within a narrow subset of the time period, then its distribution is considered to be irregular. In this study, the rainfall data from 30 meteorological observatory stations across Bangladesh were collected for the period 1980 to 2011. For all regions, precipitation was most regular during the monsoon season (Figures 4(e)–4(h)). A sub-tropical monsoon climate is strongly active, and the country is sometimes affected by tropical cyclones [32]. The total catchment area of these basins is 1.72 million km², with almost 93% of the catchment area situated outside the territories of Bangladesh – in Bhutan, China, India and Nepal. We are committed to sharing findings related to COVID-19 as quickly as possible. January, the same as December, is a moderately hot winter month in Dhaka, Bangladesh, with average temperature fluctuating between 12.7°C (54.9°F) and 25.4°C (77.7°F).January is the coldest month, with an average high-temperature of 25.4°C (77.7°F) and an average low-temperature of 12.7°C (54.9°F). The volume, timeliness, distribution, and duration of rainfall in each season are major concerns to farmers. The average amount of annual precipitation … The distribution of the annual PCI varied from <14 in the north–east (along Sylhet, Srimangal) to >18 in the north and south–east (Figure 3(a)) near the Bay of Bengal, where a moderate-to-irregular precipitation distribution was observed. The base data for this work has been collected from Bangladesh Meteorological Department. However, during the monsoon, extensive rainfall increases the incidence of devastating natural disasters (e.g., floods). This is widely recognized by the world community. Nevertheless, the rain gauge network of Bangladesh is very sparse throughout the country. The monsoon season (JASO), when precipitation was generally more uniformly distributed, had lower PCI values (Figures 5(g)–5(i)). The AMJ period showed moderately uniform premonsoon PCI values (Figure 3(h)), which is a period that normally experiences increasing rainfall from April to reach moderate levels during May and June [39]. Climate 2018, 6, 9 3 of 16 Time series of rainfall records were collected from the Bangladesh Meteorological Department (BMD) for 35 different locations all over the country (Figure1). This coincided with the spring and hot season, where precipitation was more irregularly distributed. Decadal analysis of annual PCI for (a) 1980–1989; (b) 1990–1990; (c) = 2000–2011. Open training opportunities in the humanitarian field. Bangladesh is a low-lying river-dominated country consisting primarily of flat plains. The northwestern part of the country, drought is a common phenomenon and became a growing concern in the recent years. Annual Flood Report. In facing the climate change impact, the country has made solid progress. (a) Annual; (b, c) supraseasonal (b = JJ, c = JD); (d–f) seasonal (d = NDJF, e = MAMJ, f = JASO); (g–j) three months (g = JFM, h = AMJ, i = JAS, j = OND). For all regions, the annual PCI values were moderate and irregular, and the six-month (JJ and JD) PCI values were irregular to moderate. The observed rainfall data were available from two sources BMD and BWDB. For the supraseasonal analysis, significant differentiation was observed during 1990–1999 for the JJ period and during 2000–2011 for JD period (Figures 7 and 8). Decadal analysis of seasonal PCI of NDJF for (a) 1980–1989, (b) 1990–1990, and (c) 2000–2011; MAMJ for (d) 1980–1989, (e) 1990–1990, and (f) 2000–2011; JASO for (g) 1980–1989, (h) 1990–1990, and (i) 2000–2011. Design/methodology/approach – The model generated rainfall was calibrated with ground-based observed data in Bangladesh during the period of 1979-2006. The west-central and northeastern regions had similar values, but from 1990 to 1999, the central region changed significantly. These monsoon depressions have a south-to-north trajectory, with turns towards the northwest and west deflected by the Meghalaya Plateau. Morning Humidity : 95% Evening Humidity : 66% Surface Pressure : 1016.5 hPa Release Date: 2018-05-10. ... API - Real-time data stream to power next-generation apps. Bangladesh Rainfall and River Situation Summary as on July 8, 2018. Bangladesh has 30 meteorological observatories (Figure 1), all of which were included in this study. Precipitation is changing on global and regional scales by the influence of warming [1–4]. Only in a few humid months per year the intense of rain is a bit higher. This work was supported by the Ministry of Education of the Republic of Korea and the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF-2016S1A3A2924243). It occupies an area of 147,570 km2 and geographically extends from 20°34′ N to 26°38′ N and from 88°01′ E to 92°41′ E. Most of the population lives in rural areas and directly or indirectly depends on agricultural activities. For example, this last value indicates that most annual precipitation occurs within four months, most supraseasonal precipitation occurs within two months, and most seasonal precipitation occurs within one month. Annual Weather Averages Near Dhaka. Overall, the north–west area showed the highest PCI values (>20), while the central, south, and east areas had moderate values and irregular distributions. PCI is an indicator of rainfall concentration and rainfall erosivity [28]. This analysis uses 30 years of data from 1984–2013. Based on weather reports collected during 2005–2015. Dataset quality is an important indicator for obtaining good results and was carefully controlled before the data were released. Rainfall variability in space and time is one of the most relevant characteristics of the climate of Bangladesh where hydrological disaster is a common phenomenon [5]. On average, August is the wettest month. To investigate the temporal changes in PCI, the PCI values were calculated for ten decadal subperiods: 1980–1989, 1990–1999, and 2000–2011. The daily rainfall data of Rangpur, Dinajpur and Sylhet stations were collected for the years 2004 and 2006 from either source and used in this study. The annual trend of PCI has increased by maximum in majority of the stations for most of the periods whereas the SupraSeasonal PCI of July–December has decreased in two third of the stations (Table 2). The Köppen-Geiger climate classification is Aw. The major objective of this research was to analyze rainfall trend and irregular distribution over the study area at various temporal intervals. Mean two-month PCI during (a) JF; (b) FM; (c) MA; (d) AM; (e) MJ; (f) JJ; (g) JA; (h) AS; (i) SO; (j) ON; (k) ND; (l) DJ. Due to the monsoon season, precipitation concentration increased dramatically while that in the winter season decreased. The geographic information system (GIS) tools have been used for the PCI mapping. Then, we defined uniform, moderate, irregular, and highly irregular precipitation distributions and seasonal variations for specific regions. The summers here have a good deal of rainfall, while the winters have very little. In July, rainfall amounts to 800 mm (31.5 in) in Sylhet, to 750 mm (29.5 in) in Chittagong, to 900 mm (35.5 in) in Cox's Bazar, and to as high as 1,000 mm (40 in) in Teknaf. These climate data were interpolated from the respective meteorological stations located in … Bangladesh experiences a monsoon climate and has a flood-plain topography, making it prone to hydrological disasters. Find help on how to use the site, read terms and conditions, view the FAQs and API documentation. This page includes a chart with historical data for Bangladesh Average Temperature. However, data also showed that, since 2014, these trends have been changing, and dengue cases have been reported durin… For regions prone to hydrological disasters (e.g., Bangladesh), the implications of these changes are particularly significant [5]. For example, some studies have applied a precipitation variability focus in regions influenced by extreme precipitation events [25]. Meanwhile, SO, ON, ND, and DJ had moderate-to-irregular distributions. In summer (MAMJ), the PCI values showed a moderate precipitation distribution, with the north–west and south to south–east regions showing a highly moderate distribution (Figures 5(d)–5(f)). The analyses of periodic variation and precipitation in Bangladesh generally follow through the SW–NE direction due to the summer monsoon, while during the winter monsoon, they follow the N–S direction where JAS and JFM showed higher and lower PCI values. For the case of dynamic combination, generally Bangladesh faced extreme floods and longer periods of droughts [5, 16, 17]. The most irregular and strongly irregular distributions were observed in the OND period, which was influenced by winter weather.

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