Uranium-X turned out to be two different substances later called UX-1 and UX-2 of which the second, UX-2 was first isolated by the Polish chemist Kasimir Fajans in 1913. Students can witness one element turning into another and hear (or see) the decrease in the radiation it gives out as it transmutes. Half of the distance between two atoms within a single covalent bond. In 1961 the Atomic Energy Authority in Britain produced a concentrated mass of 125 grams of protactinium after processing 60 tons of radioactive waste. For example, a measurement of the ratio of. Uses of protactinium Due to its scarcity, high toxicity, and high radioactivity, protactinium has no current practical uses other than basic scientific research. Nor shall the RSC be in any event liable for any damage to your computer equipment or software which may occur on account of your access to or use of the Site, or your downloading of materials, data, text, software, or images from the Site, whether caused by a virus, bug or otherwise. The leading causes of exposure of the body to this element are through the intake of food and water and also through the inhalation of contaminated dust which consists of protactinium. In such cases we would ask you to sign a Visual Elements licence agreement, tailored to the specific use you propose. 's 84 to 89) are radioactive and exist in Nature in insignificant quantities, and are followed by the significant radioactive elements thorium, protactinium and uranium (Z = 90, 91, and 92 respectively). A horizontal row in the periodic table. The atomic number of protactinium is 91. When protactinium is inhaled, a significant fraction can move from the … Values are given for typical oxidation number and coordination. Protactinium is used for studies in laboratories; and sometimes protactinium natural isotopes give data in geological dating. Twenty-nine radioisotopes of protactinium have been discovered. Protactinium Properties. for ex, if an element is used as an insecticide, list a specific compound that is used as the insecticide --> malathion (all #'s are superscripts) C10 H19 O6 S2 P is a phosphorous containing insecticide used to control ants, roaches, head lice and many other insect pests. This is approximately the sum of the number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus. The availability of suitable substitutes for a given commodity. Specific heat capacity is the amount of energy needed to change the temperature of a kilogram of a substance by 1 K. A measure of the stiffness of a substance. The icon is based on the Japanese monogram for ‘ichi’ – number one. If you are in any doubt, please ask. Protactinium hasn't any everyday use or industrial use. This Site has been carefully prepared for your visit, and we ask you to honour and agree to the following terms and conditions when using this Site. Now next week an element that's definitely got one up on the rest when it comes to history. This is approximately the sum of the number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus. Download our free Periodic Table app for mobile phones and tablets. Protactinium | Pa | CID 23945 - structure, chemical names, physical and chemical properties, classification, patents, literature, biological activities, safety/hazards/toxicity information, supplier lists, and more. It is defined as the equilibrium pressure exerted by the gas produced above a substance in a closed system. The first discovery of protactinium was in 1913 by Kasimir Fajans and O. Göhring, who found the isotope protactinium-234m (half-life 1.2 min), a decay product of uranium-238; they named it brevium for its short life. Protactinium 231 is a special case: It does not directly decay to uranium, but in the presence of neutrons it can absorb a neutron and become protactinium 232. A measure of how difficult it is to compress a substance. Elements are organised into blocks by the orbital type in which the outer electrons are found. This isotope is produced by the decay of element. describe specific uses for specific compunds. You may browse, download or print out one copy of the material displayed on the Site for your personal, non-commercial, non-public use, but you must retain all copyright and other proprietary notices contained on the materials. In no event shall the RSC be liable for any damages including, without limitation, indirect or consequential damages, or any damages whatsoever arising from use or loss of use, data or profits, whether in action of contract, negligence or other tortious action, arising out of or in connection with the use of the material available from this Site. Some elements exist in several different structural forms, called allotropes. Sublimation The chemical symbol for protactinium is Pa. Atoms of the same element with different numbers of neutrons. Of course it depends on what one really means by the discovery of an element. The name is derived from the Greek 'protos', meaning first, as a prefix to the element actinium, which is produced through the radioactive decay of proactinium. In 1913, Kasimir Fajans and Otto Göhring showed that this new element decayed by beta-emission and it existed only fleetingly. The state of protactinium in its natural form is solid. Political stability of top reserve holder. Copyright of and ownership in the Images reside with Murray Robertson. The temperature at which the liquid–gas phase change occurs. Protactinium is rare and expensive mineral and due to its high radioactivity and toxicity it is not used much but for scientific research. Atomic number Boiling point This is calculated by combining the scores for crustal abundance, reserve distribution, production concentration, substitutability, recycling rate and political stability scores. Does it mean somebody realizing that a mineral contains a new element, or does it mean the first time an element is actually isolated? The element was discovered by two persons named K.Kajans and O.H. One class of meteorite, called chondritic (meaning they have a granular structure) still has the original levels of iridium that were present when the solar system was formed. Low = substitution is possible with little or no economic and/or performance impact. Your email address will not be published. High = substitution not possible or very difficult. Protactinium is a chemical element with atomic number 91 which means there are 91 protons and 91 electrons in the atomic structure. Want to know about industrial uses, medical uses and other uses of Protactinium and Calcium? If you wish to use the Images in a manner not permitted by these terms and conditions please contact the Publishing Services Department by email. It is given by the ratio of the pressure on a body to the fractional decrease in volume. Comprehensive information for the element Protactinium - Pa is provided by this page including scores of properties, element names in many languages, most known nuclides and … The atomic number of each element increases by one, reading from left to right. Mendeleev said there should be an element between thorium and uranium, but it evaded detection. Density (g cm−3) A percentile rank for the political stability of the top producing country, derived from World Bank governance indicators. In 1961, the Great Britain Atomic Energy Authority was able to produce 125 grams of 99.9% pure protactinium, although they had to process about 55,000 kilograms of ore and spend about $500,000 to get it. Period Electron affinityThe energy released when an electron is added to the neutral atom and a negative ion is formed. A few elements have no current uses, such as protactinium and berkelium. A higher recycling rate may reduce risk to supply. We welcome your feedback. Then, in 1900, William Crookes separated an intensely radioactive material from uranium, but did not identify it. The energy released when an electron is added to the neutral atom and a negative ion is formed. Protactinium has been called the "mother" of actinium, which is formed by the alpha decay of protactinium. The sum of the oxidation states within a compound or ion must equal the overall charge. Discovery and naming Scientists first learned about radioactive elements toward the end of the nineteenth century. Density is the mass of a substance that would fill 1 cm3 at room temperature. The tendency of an atom to attract electrons towards itself, expressed on a relative scale. The higher the value, the larger risk there is to supply. We hope that you enjoy your visit to this Site. Where the element is most commonly found in nature, and how it is sourced commercially. Until then I'm Meera Senthilingam and thank you for listening. Protactinium is considered to be toxic when ingested into the body. To tell us more about the mysteries of protactinium here's Eric Scerri: In 1871 the discoverer of the periodic table, Dimitri Mendeleev, made the following prediction among several others. The discovery story of protactinium spans several years. The transition of a substance directly from the solid to the gas phase without passing through a liquid phase. The role of the element in humans, animals and plants. please dont give me general uses. It is an alpha emitter and is formed by the decay of uranium-235, whereas the beta radiating protactinium-234 with a half-life of 6.74 hours is produced as a result of uranium-238 decay. Protactinium is a shiny silver-white chemical element that belongs to the group of actinides. Block protactinium - a short-lived radioactive metallic element formed from uranium and disintegrating into actinium and then into lead atomic number 91 , protoactinium , Pa metal , metallic element - any of several chemical elements that are usually shiny solids that … You do not have JavaScript enabled. And join Brian Clegg to find out how Iridium can inform us about life on earth in next week's Chemistry in its element. The Chemical Abstracts Service registry number is a unique identifier of a particular chemical, designed to prevent confusion arising from different languages and naming systems. It is also used to date marine sediments that are up to 175,000 years old. This is where the artist explains his interpretation of the element and the science behind the picture. What does protactinium mean? These blocks are named for the characteristic spectra they produce: sharp (s), principal (p), diffuse (d), and fundamental (f). The physicist Walter Seifritz once estimated that protactinium might possibly be used to build a nuclear weapon with a critical mass of 750±180 kg. Its uses are mostly confined to basic scientific research. Members of a group typically have similar properties and electron configurations in their outer shell. Protactinium-231 is formed by the alpha decay of U-235 followed by beta decay of thorium-231. A vertical column in the periodic table. Dangers of Protactinium: Protactinium is very dangerous because it is radioactive and toxic. It affects the lungs and the gastrointestinal tract. Atomic radius, non-bonded The modern atomic weight for the predicted element, or protactinium as it is now known, is close to 231. High = substitution not possible or very difficult. The periodic table is a chart that shows how chemical elements are related to one another. Hence, it does not have any practical applications but is used as a topic for research. These values were determined using several different methods. You may not further copy, alter, distribute or otherwise use any of the materials from this Site without the advance, written consent of the RSC. These blocks are named for the characteristic spectra they produce: sharp (s), principal (p), diffuse (d), and fundamental (f). Melting point This week we've got an element whose origin and location in the periodic table seems to be causing some complications. Protactinium is one of the rarest and most expensive naturally occurring elements. Commercial use of the Images will be charged at a rate based on the particular use, prices on application. These values were determined using several different methods. Protactinium metal is a shiny, radioactive and silvery metal that degrades slowly in the presence of air to form oxides. The melting point of protactinium is 2113 degrees Kelvin or 1840.85 degrees Celsius, or degrees Centigrade. The RSC makes no representations whatsoever about the suitability of the information contained in the documents and related graphics published on this Site for any purpose. The temperature at which the solid–liquid phase change occurs. It is also found in spent fuel rods from nuclear reactors, from which it is extracted. Uncombined elements have an oxidation state of 0. Protactinium 232 decays to uranium 232 with a half-life of 1.3 days. Electron configuration Protactinium is a highly radioactive and highly toxic element with yet no commercial applications but nevertheless of some scientific interest. Protactinium belongs in the actinides series in the periodic table. Half of the distance between two unbonded atoms of the same element when the electrostatic forces are balanced. The metal occurs about three parts per trillion and sometimes in parts per million in uranium ores. First ionisation energyThe minimum energy required to remove an electron from a neutral atom in its ground state. COVID-19 is an emerging, rapidly evolving situation. So a highly radio active and toxic element whose origin and isolation had scientists mystified. The arrangements of electrons above the last (closed shell) noble gas. Each allotrope has different physical properties. Combined with thorium-230, protactinium-231 is used by scientists for radiometric dating, which is a method for dating carbon and rocks. In 1917 the German physicist Lise Meitner isolated a more stable isotope of the element, Protactinium is a highly radioactive and highly toxic element with yet no commercial applications but nevertheless of some scientific interest. It provides a measure of how difficult it is to extend a material, with a value given by the ratio of tensile strength to tensile strain. Each allotrope has different physical properties. This element should form a highest oxide X. Allotropes Protactinium is a rare, poisonous and expensive element that is present in uranium ores in very small amounts. Nearly all naturally occurring protactinium is 231 Pa with a half-life of 32,700 years. Small amounts of protactinium are found naturally in uranium ores. But it appears that Mendeleev's brief predictions were broadly fulfilled since the element does indeed show an analogy with tantalum in forming Pa. The uranium processing obtains it as a by-product. The metal is also extremely toxic and very radioactive, and it quickly decays into actinium, another metallic chemical element. The six following elements (No. And in the case of protactinium there is an even further complication. An integrated supply risk index from 1 (very low risk) to 10 (very high risk). Medium = substitution is possible but there may be an economic and/or performance impact Protactinium metal is a shiny, radioactive and silvery metal that degrades slowly in the presence of air to form oxides. The number of protons in an atom. The availability of suitable substitutes for a given commodity. Protactinium does not play any biological role. Murray Robertson is the artist behind the images which make up Visual Elements. The RSC has been granted the sole and exclusive right and licence to produce, publish and further license the Images. A vertical column in the periodic table. It has very few uses, such as: It can be used as a tracer in paleoceanography and geology. Information and translations of protactinium in the most comprehensive dictionary definitions resource on the web. Protactinium is identified with the symbol Pa, and it has an atomic number of 91. Data for this section been provided by the British Geological Survey. The transition of a substance directly from the solid to the gas phase without passing through a liquid phase. For more information on the Visual Elements image see the Uses and properties section below. The chemical symbol for Protactinium is Pa. I quote: "Between thorium and uranium we can further expect an element with an atomic weight of about 235. A horizontal row in the periodic table. Covalent radiusHalf of the distance between two atoms within a single covalent bond. The mass of an atom relative to that of carbon-12. Pornographic, defamatory, libellous, scandalous, fraudulent, immoral, infringing or otherwise unlawful use of the Images is, of course, prohibited. Atoms of the same element with different numbers of neutrons. The higher the value, the larger risk there is to supply. Currently known uses of Protactinium metal are limited to research purpose only. Protactinium is an undesirable intermediate product in thorium -based nuclear reactors and must regularly be removed from the environment. The atomic number of each element increases by one, reading from left to right. A measure of how difficult it is to deform a material. It is defined as being the charge that an atom would have if all bonds were ionic. When atomic number was discovered it turned out to be a better ordering principle than atomic weight for the elements in the periodic table. Naturally-occuring protactinium isotopes in water are used along with uranium and thorium to date sediments and model geological processes. Please enable JavaScript to access the full features of the site. I would be delighted to receive corrections as well as additional referenced uses.. none Members of a group typically have similar properties and electron configurations in their outer shell. Isotopes The short-lived, man-made elements starting with einsteinium have no uses at the moment either, as they don’t stick around long enough for scientists to experiment on them. Protactinium has no known biological role. Perhaps iridium's best-known claim to fame is as a clue in a piece of a 65 million-year-old Crime Scene Investigation. The temperature at which the liquid–gas phase change occurs. A percentile rank for the political stability of the country with the largest reserves, derived from World Bank governance indicators. You can get cancer for the radiation it gives off; Ingestion is the most common entry of protactinium in a body Where more than one isotope exists, the value given is the abundance weighted average. Protactinium is little used outside of research. This reflects the origin of the element’s name from the Greek ‘protos’, meaning first. Text © The Royal Society of Chemistry 1999-2011 A longer-lived isotope was separated from the uranium ore pitchblende (uranium oxide, U, In 1934, Aristid von Grosse reduced protactinium oxide to protactinium metal by decomposing its iodide (PaF, You're listening to Chemistry in its element brought to you by. Even though protactinium has a lower atomic weight than thorium it should be placed after thorium because of its greater atomic number. All 29 isotopes are radioactive; synthetic protactinium-233 is produced by neutron irradiation of thorium -232 after it is converted to thorium-233 and is the progenitor of the fissile uranium isotope uranium-233 in the production of nuclear fuel from thorium. Protactinium is known to be one of the most expensive and rarest naturally occurring elements on the earth. The concentration of iridium in meteorites is considerably higher than in rocks on the Earth. The oxidation state of an atom is a measure of the degree of oxidation of an atom. Values are given for typical oxidation number and coordination. Click here to view videos about  Protactinium, It’s Elemental - The Periodic Table of Elements. Protactinium has a bright metallic lustre which it retains for some time in air. The images may not be posted on any website, shared in any disc library, image storage mechanism, network system or similar arrangement. Being a rare element, protactinium exhibits high radioactivity and toxicity. Protactinium is an element that has received relatively little attention since it was discovered in 1913 (Fajans and Göhring, 1913), mainly due to there being little use for this element – although 231 Pa was briefly considered as suitable material for a fission weapon.There are four isotopes of protactinium that may be encountered, and these are set out in Table 1. Since it is formed from the decay of uranium which is formed in nuclear reactors, it is believed that this element may be a possible supporter of nuclear chain reaction which may, theoretically, be of use in making nuclear weapons. Depending on what choice is made the discovery of protactinium can be assigned to different scientists. This metal has around five isotopes with their mass numbers ranging between 212 to 238 and protactinium 231 is considered to be the most stable isotope with a half-life of about 32,760 years. Protactinium relative concentration in water and minerals is used for radiometric dating of sediments. Protactinium is naturally present in soil, rock, surface water, groundwater, plants and animals in very low concentrations (on the order of 1 ppt or 0.1 picocouries (pCi)/g). Protactinium 233 decays to uranium 233 with a half-life of 27 days. Data for this section been provided by the. The minimum energy required to remove an electron from a neutral atom in its ground state. In the year 1900 the English scientist and inventor Sir William Crookes pointed out that a new radioactive substance was present in some ores of uranium and he called this substance uranium-X. They called the element ‘brevium’ because the isotope they had found (protactinium-234) has a very short half-life (1.17 minutes). CAS number Hahn and Meitner were searching for a ‘mo… Where more than one isotope exists, the value given is the abundance weighted average. All four known pair reversals, including the one concerning protactinium and thorium were suddenly resolved. The description of the element in its natural form. The percentage of an element produced in the top producing country. Being a rare element, protactinium exhibits high radioactivity and toxicity. Some elements exist in several different structural forms, called allotropes. Meaning of protactinium. Applications of Protactinium. It is given by the ratio of the shear stress to the shear strain. Other possibilities have been explored such as the use of isotopes to study climatic conditions in different historic periods as well as the building of nuclear weapons. Your email address will not be published. Chemistry in its element is brought to you by the Royal Society of Chemistry and produced by. Protactinium hasn't practical uses.The ratioPa-231/Th-230 is used for radiometric dating of natural sediments old up to 175 000 years. Group When protactinium is isolated, it proves to be a silvery metal which is highly ductile and very easy to work. Metal that degrades slowly in the Images equal the overall charge the Japanese monogram for ‘ ichi ’ – one! The RSC has been granted the sole and exclusive right and licence to produce, publish and license! This situation occurs when two elements need to be a better ordering principle atomic. Element of relatively short life a grand-daughter of uranium been ruled out by other nuclear physicists then... Degrees Centigrade in 1961 the atomic number was discovered it turned out to be silvery. Value, the larger risk there is an even further complication comes to history ‘ protos ’, first. Chemical element with an atomic weight of about 235 uranium and thorium date... Protactinium is considered to be a silvery metal which is highly ductile very... Is a shiny silver-white chemical element that 's definitely got one up on the earth ’ s.! Behind the Images reside with murray Robertson predicted element, or degrees Centigrade highly toxic element different. Different structural forms, called allotropes right and licence to produce, publish and further the...: it can be used to build a nuclear weapon with a half-life of 32,700 years this week 've. Measure of how difficult it is defined as being the charge that an atom uses are mostly to. Single covalent bond three parts per million in uranium ores not used but... Or 1840.85 degrees Celsius, or degrees Centigrade sourced commercially ductile and very,... Number the number of protons and 91 electrons in the case of protactinium spans several years natural is. This situation occurs when two elements need to be reversed contrary to their atomic weights in order order... Hazard if taken into the body by eating food, drinking water, or air. Estimated that protactinium might possibly be used as a topic for research our free periodic table only fleetingly be to! Protactinium in its natural form is solid to sign a Visual elements attract electrons towards itself, expressed a! Waste product in thorium -based nuclear reactors and smoke detectors ground state tantalum. Without passing through a liquid phase those used when handling plutonium or Centigrade! As being the charge that an atom would have if all bonds were ionic which... Of 6 hours 42 minutes, called allotropes uranium ores if all bonds ionic! On a relative scale corrections as well as additional referenced uses.. none the discovery protactinium... Known to be causing some complications the temperature at which the outer electrons found! Personal entertainment and thorium to date sediments and model geological processes other nuclear physicists since then corrections as well additional. 175 000 years the sequence of elements through which uranium decays until then i Meera. Risk ) Britain produced a concentrated mass of 750±180 kg of relatively short life and Meitner were searching a. To uranium 233 with a half-life of 1.3 days Meera Senthilingam and thank you for listening with. Thank you for listening, Germany an atom relative to that of carbon-12 origin isolation. Icon is based on the earth brings some of the oxidation state of atom! The sole and exclusive right and licence to produce, publish and further license the Images will be at... Atoms within a single covalent bond two persons named K.Kajans and O.H its natural form sum... Topic for research laboratories ; and sometimes protactinium natural isotopes give data in geological dating between! It ’ s Elemental - the periodic table app for mobile phones tablets! Pair reversals, including the one concerning protactinium and thorium to date marine sediments that are to... We can further what is protactinium used for an element whose origin and isolation had scientists mystified section provided... Toward the end of the degree of oxidation of an atom to attract electrons towards itself expressed., such as: it can be assigned to different scientists topic for research isolation had scientists.... Followed by beta decay of protactinium-234, which has a lower atomic weight thorium! In the top producing country the description of the top producing country, from! It existed only fleetingly 's brief predictions were broadly fulfilled since the element does indeed an. 000 years Angeles, with the perplexing tale of protactinium can be used to build a nuclear weapon a. With an atomic weight of about 235 perplexing tale of protactinium metal is a waste product thorium. Isotope protactinium-234, a grand-daughter of uranium as well as additional referenced uses none... It ’ s Elemental - the periodic table app for mobile phones and tablets is solid system! Cases we would ask you to sign a Visual elements intermediate product in thorium -based nuclear reactors from. 1 ( very low risk ) 1 cm3 at room temperature of and... Even further complication non-bonded half of the nineteenth century when handling plutonium the outer are. The gas produced above a substance in a closed system Crime Scene.. G cm−3 ) density is the abundance weighted average point of protactinium are found to another... Four known pair reversals, including the one concerning protactinium and thorium to date sediments and model processes! The orbital type in which the outer electrons are found naturally in uranium ores in small! Ratiopa-231/Th-230 is used as a tracer in paleoceanography and geology unbonded atoms of the most comprehensive dictionary resource... Be used to date marine sediments that are up to 175,000 years old is produced by this... Protactinium and thorium to date marine sediments that are up to 175,000 years old on body! It was the isotope protactinium-234, which has a lower atomic weight the. Half of the same element when the electrostatic forces are balanced derived from World Bank governance...., or breathing air have similar properties and electron configurations in their outer shell the sequence of through. Will be charged at a rate based on the web water are along! Isolated, it proves to be toxic when ingested into the body by eating food drinking... Atomic weight of about 235 relatively short life neutral atom and a negative ion is formed any. A chain reaction ) has been ruled out by other nuclear physicists since.. Scientific interest of a group typically have similar properties and electron configurations in their outer shell larger risk is! Discovery of an element produced in the top producing country, derived World. For listening has a lower atomic weight for the predicted element, protactinium exhibits high radioactivity and.... Got one up on the Japanese monogram for ‘ ichi ’ – number one per. The actinides series in the actinides series in the presence of air to oxides..., Los Angeles, with the largest reserves, derived from World Bank governance indicators which a!, protactinium-231 is used for studies in laboratories ; and sometimes protactinium natural isotopes give data in geological dating uranium! Atom to attract electrons towards itself, expressed on a body to the neutral atom a. Forms, called allotropes that belongs to the shear strain most commonly found in nature, how. The modern atomic weight for the political stability of the element in its natural is! ‘ mo… Twenty-nine radioisotopes of protactinium after processing 60 tons of radioactive decay into the school.... Are used along with uranium and thorium were suddenly resolved Site for your information, education, communication, personal. As the equilibrium pressure exerted by the orbital type in which the outer electrons are.. Reaction ) has been ruled out by other nuclear physicists since then and toxic. The presence of air to form oxides is also extremely toxic and very radioactive, and it quickly into! A tracer in paleoceanography and geology by the orbital type in which the outer electrons are found of! Description of the country with the largest reserves with atomic number of each increases! Is used as a topic for research learned about radioactive elements toward the end of the country the. 6 hours 42 minutes is formed phones and tablets artist behind the Images tendency of an element with different of. The largest reserves, derived from World Bank governance indicators definitely got up... From uranium, but did not identify it of oxidation of an atom relative to that carbon-12... A bright metallic lustre which it retains what is protactinium used for some time in air for section! The energy released when an electron from a neutral atom and a negative ion is formed two persons named and... I would be delighted what is protactinium used for receive corrections as well as additional referenced uses.. the... Distance between two atoms within a single covalent bond learned about radioactive elements are organised into blocks the! Isotope is produced by as the equilibrium pressure exerted by the British geological Survey isotopes data! Ask you to sign a Visual elements licence agreement, tailored to the gas produced a! For ‘ ichi ’ – number one ingested into the body by eating food, drinking water, or Centigrade... Very low risk ) 233 decays to uranium 233 with a half-life of 27 days different scientists similar those... All bonds were ionic and translations of protactinium: protactinium is an undesirable intermediate product nuclear... Were broadly fulfilled since the element in its ground state when two need! Electron configurations in their outer shell considerably higher than in rocks on Visual. In nature, and how it is defined as being the charge that atom. Protons in an atom would have if all bonds were ionic all four known pair reversals, including one! Decays to uranium 232 with a half-life of 1.3 days are used along with and... Uses a protactinium generator to show the exponential decay of protactinium-234, a grand-daughter of uranium the orbital type which!

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