All the raided offices stored sensitive and confidential information, including details about clients seeking help due to domestic or other violence. In contrast to the often troubled and segregated relations between ethnic and ‘racial’ groups, men and women have frequent daily contact, often consider a partner from the other group to be ... subjectively favourable but patronizing attitudes towards women. Thus, although ambivalent and context dependent, sexist attitudes serve a common goal: to reinforce traditional gender role and power distinctions. [328] The CESCR and CEDAW Committees have raised similar concerns and recommended improved access to sexual and reproductive health information and contraception for adolescents. Human Rights Watch telephone interview with Ewa Wnorowska, October 5, 2018. A former colleague suggested hiring her to cover an employee’s maternity leave in another municipal government department but, Zofia Z. said, “[Her boss] said, ‘No way. Such differences could be even greater between cultures. Conduct oversight of funding to ensure the Polish government’s dispersal of funds respects rights to non-discrimination, freedom of expression, and freedom of peaceful assembly, and that grantees respect these rights. [3] Female oppression stemmed partly from Confucianbeliefs about gender roles in society (such as filial piety), ideas which remain influential. They received funding in 2017 but were rejected again in 2018 without explanation. [149] Human Rights Watch telephone interview with Antonina Lewandowska, volunteer educator, Ponton, August 21, 2018. “It was unthinkable that these things were happening at a school under her [leadership].”[251], Teachers said local authorities made an example of them to deter others from supporting or participating in protests. 17.1-17.2; CEDAW Committee, Letter from Hilary Gbedemah, Rapporteur on Follow-Up, CEDAW Committee, to His Excellency Mr. Zbigniew Czech, Permanent Representative of the Republic of Poland to the United Nations Office at Geneva, April 13, 2018, https://tbinternet.ohchr.org/Treaties/CEDAW/Shared%20Documents/POL/INT_CEDAW_FUL_POL_30901_E.pdf (accessed January 23, 2019). “People said that [I’m] too outspoken, a bit of a threat, that I could go to the media and create too much of a storm.”[268]. mentary justifications for gender inequality. [61] Family Planning Act of 1993, arts. Oxford: Oxford University Press. “PiS changed the [provincial] heads and now it has become political, so it is hard to get money,” said Joanna Piotrowska, of the women’s rights group Feminoteka in Warsaw. [9] Catholic Church leaders have repeatedly pointed to education on sexuality and social constructs of gender as a form of “gender ideology” that poses a threat to Catholic values. When parliament rejected the ban on October 6, it felt like a triumph for women’s rights and popular protest. High-level PiS leaders and civil servants have championed retrogressive laws and policies, sought to reinforce traditional gender roles, disparaged feminism, and publicly discouraged efforts to combat violence against women. [294] Poland ratified the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR) and the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR) on March 2, 1967; the Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) on May 29, 1980; the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) on January 26, 1990; the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) on September 25, 2012; European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR) on January 19, 1993; Council of Europe Convention on Preventing and Combating Violence against Women and Domestic Violence (Istanbul Convention) on April 27, 2015. A/65/162 (July 23, 2010), para. Instruct employees not to obstruct workshops due to personal beliefs. Lara-Cantú, M. A. [172] Human Rights Watch interview with Anna Głogowska-Balcerzak, August 7, 2018. Are women treated with the same standards as men? [82] Anna Koper and Marcin Goettig, “Thousands join ‘Black Friday’ marches against Polish abortion restrictions,” Reuters, March 23, 2018, https://www.reuters.com/article/us-poland-abortion/thousands-join-black-friday-marches-against-polish-abortion-restrictions-idUSKBN1GZ2LP (accessed January 24, 2019). [88] “EMA recommends availability of ellaOne emergency contraceptive without prescription,” European Medicines Agency press release, November 21, 2014, https://www.ema.europa.eu/news/ema-recommends-availability-ellaone-emergency-contraceptive-without-prescription (accessed January 24, 2019); “Commission Implementing Decision of January 7, 2015, amending the marketing authorisation granted by Decision C(2009)4049 for “ellaOne – ulipristal acetate,” a medicinal product for human use,” (C2015)51, European Commission, Brussels, January 7, 2015, http://ec.europa.eu/health/documents/community-register/2015/20150107130448/dec_130448_en.pdf (accessed January 24, 2019); “Emergency contraception,” World Health Organization (WHO), February 2018, http://www.who.int/en/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/emergency-contraception (accessed January 24, 2019). 4a.5. In this article, we analyze how people's preference to use one of the two terms used in the abortion discourse: “fetus” and “unborn child” can reveal their attitudes toward abortion and reflect deeper processes of (de)mentalization of the preborn. [295] United Nations Declaration on the Right and Responsibility of Individuals, Groups and Organs of Society to Promote and Protect Universally Recognized Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms (UN Declaration on Human Rights Defenders), General Assembly Res. The same day, a member of the MRPiPS Public Support Office telephoned and said MRPiPS staff were coming to Autonomia’s offices for a monitoring visit. [163], Activists said both the MOJ and MRPiPS now often fund church-affiliated organizations or ones considered pro-government rather than established specialist women’s rights groups. [174] “When we have women waiting in the corridors [of the center], we will work [there],” she said. Sandfort, T. (2005). Susan Gal and Gail Kligman explore these differences through a probing analysis of the role of gender in reshaping politics and social relations since 1989. [218] Human Rights Watch interview with Agata Teutsch, August 2, 2018. said. ), e-mail: mmikolajczak@psych.uw.edu.pl; gosiamikolajczak@gmail.com, violated, lead to hostility. [353] It calls for specialist support services in addition to or integrated into general support services for survivors of violence, and recognizes the need for targeted services to meet specific needs of victims of sexual and gender-based violence. akt K 12/14, Warsaw, October 7, 2015, http://trybunal.gov.pl/postepowanie-i-orzeczenia/wyroki/art/8602-prawo-do-odmowy-wykonania-swiadczenia-zdrowotnego-niezgodnego-z-sumieniem/ (accessed January 24, 2019); UN Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (CESCR), Concluding observations on the sixth periodic report of Poland, UN Doc. Agnieszka Bielecka, associate in the Women’s Rights Division, provided research assistance and support. Orloff, A. S. (2009). ), collectivism: Cross-cultural perspectives on. Laner, M. R., & Ventrone, N. A. 38(a), 39(a). Human Rights Watch telephone interview with Ewa Wnorowska, Katarzyna Gwóźdź, and Aleksandra Piotrowska, September 17, 2018. [72] However, in October 2015 a Polish Constitutional Tribunal’s decision further diminished abortion access by eliminating the obligation of health providers, should they invoke the conscience clause, to refer women elsewhere for safe abortion care. Before the 1949 revolution[edit] Before the 1949 Maoistrevolution, women were generally restricted to the traditional gender roles of wives, concubines, or prostitutes. A/HRC/36/14, July 18, 2017, https://documents-dds-ny.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/G17/194/27/PDF/G1719427.pdf?OpenElement (accessed January 24, 201), paras. [106] HFHR, “The Situation of Civil Society Organizations in Poland,” September 2017, http://www.hfhr.pl/wp-content/uploads/2017/09/HFHR_situation_ngos_in_Poland_brief.pdf (accessed January 24, 2019), p. 3. These basic tenets form a richer structure of prejudice not encapsulated by the sub-dimensions of AST and, as we will argue, are of substantial importance for the everyday lives of women and the maintenance of the gender hierarchy in society at large. 36. level negative emotions would likely reduce the willingness to engage in, It is also plausible that the beliefs related to the proposed dimensions could be, the family or the community, not women as a group. In a speech at the 2016 UN Commission on the Status of Women, then-Plenipotentiary for Civil Society and Equal Treatment Wojciech Kaczmarczyk—now Director of the National Institute of Freedom—called for women’s equal opportunity but also said Poland would promote “family mainstreaming” rather than “gender mainstreaming” to ensure “legal and economic advancement of the family.”[34] He stressed women’s reproductive role, saying, “Economic and social coercion is often forcing women to resign from being mother [sic] or to limit the number of children they want.”[35] In a 2017 thematic report on the backlash against gender and women’s rights, the United Nations Working Group on the Issue of Discrimination against Women in Law and Practice warned, “[p]rotection of the family cannot be used as a justification for laws, policies or practices that would deny women and girls their full and equal human rights.”[36], Also undermining equality, the PiS government reintroduced gender-based retirement ages (65 for men, 60 for women) in 2017. Apostolic Letter. forts. [95] Ministry of National Education, Ośrodek Rozwoju Edukacji, “Podstawa programowa kształcenia ogólnego z komentarzem. “They are probably worried now because they feel what they say here may not be safe.”[234]. [275] Human Rights Watch interview with Hanna H., Kraków, August 2, 2018 (name withheld). A/HRC/38/34, July 26, 2018, http://undocs.org/A/HRC/38/34 (accessed January 24, 2019), para. [46] “PM Morawiecki sends law on domestic violence back to lawmakers,” tvn24, January 2, 2019, https://www.tvn24.pl/tvn24-news-in-english,157,m/polish-pm-returns-law-on-domestic-violence-for-corrections,896918.html (accessed January 23, 2019). [342], The Council of Europe Convention on Preventing and Combating Violence against Women and Domestic Violence (Istanbul Convention), to which Poland is a party, calls for inclusion of age-appropriate education on topics such as equality between men and women, non-violent conflict resolution in interpersonal relationships, and gender-based violence in formal curricula at all levels of schooling. [102] Human Rights Watch interviews with Hanna H. (name withheld), Kraków, August 2, 2018, and Aleksandra Józefowska, coordinator, Ponton, Warsaw, August 8, 2018. Hanna H. (name has been changed), headmistress at a middle school near Kraków, said the municipal Ministry of Education office, the Kuratorium, subjected her to an audit and disciplinary proceedings because she arranged Autonomia workshops at the school during the 16 Days of Activism to End Violence Against Women in December 2016. Jokes with sexual connotations ... Poland and Germany: 50 years since Willy Brandt's historic gesture. [122] Human Rights Watch interview with Sylwia Spurek, August 9, 2018. MDR.083.2.2018.AB(3), Warsaw, January 10, 2019, translated for Human Rights Watch, on file with Human Rights Watch. Ensure that ministry funding for women’s rights and work on violence against women supports organizations whose activities and services are non-discriminatory, inclusive, survivor-centered, and do not perpetuate gender stereotypes, traditional gender roles, or intolerance. Where names and identifying details are used, the individuals gave informed consent for Human Rights Watch to do so. “It’s all mother’, gender: Politics, publics and everyday life after socialism. [13] Government-linked entities have also adopted and propagated the argument. Rather than diminishing prejudice, they present subtle, camoufl aged versions. [242] He also re-posted the photo on Facebook with the hashtag #CzarnyProtest (Black Protest) and inflammatory, anti-abortion comments. Access scientific knowledge from anywhere. [343] Council of Europe Convention on Preventing and Combating Violence Against Women and Domestic Violence (Istanbul Convention), art. A z przemocą?” tvn24, June 5, 2018, https://fakty.tvn24.pl/ogladaj-online,60/zakopane-walczy-z-ustawa-o-przeciwdzialaniu-przemocy-w-rodzinie,842783.html (accessed January 24, 2019). Such services are confidential, in line with international best practice standards for security and survivor-centered care. 30, 31(c); CESCR, Concluding Observations 2016, para. [41] Kodeks karny (Penal Code), Sejm, June 6, 1997, Dz. Pomoc osobom dotkniętym przemocą domową” (“Information about the results of the audit. [67] Mateusz Majnusz, “Pomogła 16-letniej córce w aborcji. In all but one case, the government did not provide clear explanations of why funding was discontinued. The Ministry of Justice also refused funding to the Empowering Children Foundation in 2016 on grounds that they do not provide services for all victims of crime. 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