In 209 BC the new Roman commander Publius Scipio captured Carthago Nova, the main Carthaginian base in the peninsula. The outcome of these wars determined the nation to dominate the Mediterranean for years to come, and the largest of the wars was the Second Punic War. [101] Hasdrubal led the Carthaginian cavalry on the left wing and routed the Roman cavalry opposite, then swept around the rear of the Romans to attack their cavalry on the other wing. Saguntum was south of the river Ebro and therefore within the Carthaginian sphere of influence, but it had an alliance with Rome. Leaving 20,000 troops with his brother Hasdrubal, Hannibal went farther north on the Rhone River than the Romans … In the course of two major wars and one extended three year long siege of Carthage itself Rome would conquer its last major foe and turn the Mediterranean into a Roman lake. The consequences of the Second Punic War Under the Hannibal’s influence, democratic reforms in Rome have been conducted after peace conclusion. [110], The greatest gain was the second largest city of Italy, Capua, when Hannibal's army marched into Campania in 216 BC. Over the course of one-hundred years the Mediterranean antiquity was rocked by an ancient cold war between the North African seafaring state of Carthage, and the newly rising city of Rome located on the Italian Peninsula. The Romans immediately declared war on him. [30][44], Both states possessed large fleets throughout the war, but there were no large-scale naval clashes and Carthage never attempted to use its fleet decisively, effectively giving the Romans naval superiority for the course of the war. Carthage; A Coastal Trade Center. Introduction [113] A second force, under Hannibal's youngest brother Mago, was meant to land in Italy in 215 BC but was diverted to Iberia after a major Carthaginian defeat there. This was insufficient to challenge Hannibal's army in open battle, but sufficient to force him to concentrate his forces and to hamper his movements. The Carthaginians could not let this go. This act initiates the First Punic War. The Second Punic War or the Hannibalic War lasted sixteen years from 218 BC to 202 BC and was fought between the two major powers of Rome and Carthage. Hasdrubal demurred, arguing that Carthaginian authority over the Iberian tribes was too fragile and the Roman forces in the area too strong for him to execute the planned movement. An indemnity of 10,000 silver talents[note 7] was to be paid over 50 years. I would argue that while Rome was ultimately the greater military power, Cárthage from a geopolitical and commercial viewpoint was equally, if not more successful than Rome in the same period of time leading up to the start of, Rome was growing and it was becoming incredibly wealthy after the Punic wars, but the republic was facing serious problems during this time. [130] Later that same year, Hannibal defeated another Roman army at the Battle of Herdonia, with 16,000 men lost from a force of 18,000. 242/1 BC The First Punic War ends, with Carthage defeated after a major Roman naval victory. The inhabitants of Capua held limited Roman citizenship and the aristocracy was linked to the Romans via marriage and friendship, but the possibility of becoming the supreme city of Italy after the evident Roman disasters proved too strong a temptation. [61][62] Hamilcar ruled as a viceroy and was succeeded by his son-in-law, Hasdrubal, in the early 220s BC and then his son, Hannibal, in 221 BC. This paper compares the rise and influence of Carthagínian to Roman power in the Mediterránean region between the ninth and second BCE centuries, and identifies some of the reasons that led to Rome becoming the dominating force over Cárthage. Hostages were taken. [143] Hasdrubal now had no chance of reinforcing Hannibal in Italy. While Rome was busy at other tasks and in other parts of the world, the city of Carthage was growing strong again. For 17 years the two states struggled for supremacy, primarily in Italy and Iberia, but also on the islands of Sicily and Sardinia and, towards the end of the war, in North Africa. [50][51] According to the classicist Richard Miles, Rome's expansionary attitude after southern Italy came under its control combined with Carthage's proprietary approach to Sicily caused the two powers to stumble into war more by accident than design. The Roman Senate authorized the raising of double-sized armies by Varro and Paullus, a force of 86,000 men, the largest in Roman history up to that point. After the Second Punic War, Rome established itself as the most powerful nation in the Mediterranean. Henceforth it was clear that Carthage was politically subordinate to Rome. [164] Scipio was awarded a triumph and received the agnomen "Africanus". [88] Hannibal attempted without success to draw the main Roman army under Gaius Flaminius into a pitched battle by devastating the area they had been sent to protect. For 17 years the two states struggled for supremacy, primarily in Italy and Iberia, but also on the islands of Sicily and Sardinia and, towards the end of the war, in North Africa. Observing that the three Carthaginian armies were deployed apart from each other, the Romans split their forces. The war was over. After the Second Punic War, Rome established itself as the most powerful nation in the Mediterranean. Having secured his position in northern Italy by this victory, Hannibal quartered his troops for the winter among the Gauls. The treaty between them and Hannibal can be described as an agreement of friendship, since the Capuans had no obligations. [15][17][16], Several of the city states in southern Italy allied themselves with Hannibal, or were captured when pro-Carthaginian factions betrayed their defences. This meant the loss of Carthaginian Sicily to Rome under the terms of the Roman-dictated Treaty of Lutatius. Rome's second war against Carthage reduced the number of people in the Italian Men had gone off to war. major wars in the history of time had taken place. Both battles ended in complete defeat for the Romans, as Hasdrubal had bribed the Romans' mercenaries to desert. After the first Punic war where. After the death or capture of more than 120,000 Roman troops in less than three years, many of Rome's Italian allies, notably Capua, defected to Carthage, giving Hannibal control over much of southern Italy. [49] Relationships were good, the two states had several times declared their mutual friendship and there were strong commercial links. (Keith Sidwell, 16) The Punic war was broken into, Introduction Outcomes from the Second Punic War The second Púnic war (herein after referred to as, “the War”) came to a close in 201 BCE, following Scípio’s victory over Hánnibal at the battle of Záma. By 214 BC, Mago and Hasdrubal had levied new forces and decided to strike first. [52] The immediate cause of the war was the issue of control of the independent Sicilian city state of Messana (modern Messina). But the Romans were still after Hannibal. [125], Carthage sent more reinforcements to Sicily in 211 BC and went on the offensive. The approximate extent of territory controlled by Rome and Carthage immediately before the start of the First Punic War. [133], In 210 the Carthaginians caught the Romans off guard during their siege of Herdonia and lifted the siege after a pitched battle in which the Romans lost 13,000 men from their army of 20,000. Carthage was forbidden to possess war elephants and its fleet was restricted to 10 warships. The First Punic War had been a humiliating loss for the Carthaginian Empire against Rome. Carthage resented Rome and sought revenge. In 219 BC Hannibal besieged, captured and sacked the pro-Roman city of Saguntum, prompting a Roman declaration of war on Carthage in spring 218 BC. Many Roman politicians took bribes and they would encourage the forming violent mobs to aid them in rising to power. Without the expected reinforcement the Carthaginians were compelled to evacuate allied towns in Italy and withdraw to Bruttium. [87], In early spring 217 BC, the Carthaginians crossed the Apennines unopposed, taking a difficult but unguarded route. [104][105] However, the majority of Rome's allies remained loyal, including many in southern Italy. Infantry were usually positioned in the centre of the battle line, with light infantry skirmishers to their front and cavalry on each flank. [168] The Third Punic War began later in 149 BC when a large Roman army landed in North Africa[169] and besieged Carthage. The Romans were still in their winter quarters. Rome was victorious after the Second Punic War. They were divided into three ranks, of which the front rank also carried two javelins, while the second and third ranks had a thrusting spear instead. One of those disinherited was the Numidian prince Masinissa, who was thus driven into the arms of Rome. This sealed the fate of the Carthaginians in Iberia. In 205 BC this war ended with a negotiated peace. After the fall of Phoenician city of Tyre, the remaining Tyrians fled to Carthage with whatever wealth, encountered many wars and battles, they didn’t win all of their battles; however, they’ve learned through their failures to improve upon the progress of their society. A fresh Roman army attacked the main Carthaginian stronghold on the island, Agrigentum, in 210 BC and the city was betrayed to the Romans by a discontented Carthaginian officer. The last war was kind of a punishment for Carthage from Rome. [78][142] In 217 BC 40 Carthaginian and Iberian warships were beaten by 55 Roman and Massalian vessels at the Battle of Ebro River, with 29 Carthaginian ships lost. Mago's arrival in the north of the Italian peninsula was followed by Hannibal's inconclusive Battle of Crotona in 204 BC in the far south of the peninsula. Many senior Carthaginians wanted to reject it, but Hannibal spoke strongly in its favour and it was accepted in spring 201 BC. [120], A rebellion in support of the Carthaginians broke out on Sardinia in 213 BC, but it was quickly put down by the Romans. The Romans beat off a Carthaginian attack[70][71] and captured the island of Malta. [143], In 210 BC Publius Cornelius Scipio,[note 6] arrived in Iberia with further Roman reinforcements. [141], The Roman fleet continued on from Massala in the autumn of 218 BC, landing the army it was transporting in north-east Iberia, where it won support among the local tribes. During the Punic War era, the extent of Roman Imperialism was founded on the basis of making the world as one. [106] The new allies increased the number of fixed points which Hannibal's army was expected to defend from Roman retribution, but provided relatively few fresh troops to assist him in doing so. Carthage was reduced to a mere client state of Rome and its navy was reduced to just ten ships and they were forbidden from raising an army without the permission of Rome. There were many potential causes of the Second Punic War, but the harsh result of the First Punic War was the most influential factor in the start of the Second Punic War. While the First Punic War had been fought largely over control of Sicily, the Second Punic War involved confrontations in Spain, Italy, Sicily, Sardinia, and North Africa. He had lost his power over Mediterranean Sea; losing Sicily and the compensation imposed on him by Rome greatly affected his economy. After immense material and human losses on both sides the Carthaginians were defeated. "Shock" troops are those trained and used to close rapidly with an opponent, with the intention of breaking them before, or immediately upon, contact. The Punic wars between Rome and Carthage over the Italian Peninsula. In response, Roman advisers were sent to train his soldiers and he waged war against the Carthaginian ally Gala. [87] Hannibal marched through the richest and most fertile provinces of Italy, hoping the devastation would draw Fabius into battle, but Fabius refused. Quintus Fabius Maximus was elected dictator by the Roman Assembly and adopted the "Fabian strategy" of avoiding pitched battles, relying instead on low-level harassment to wear the invader down, until Rome could rebuild its military strength. How was it almost the equal in power to Rome? [14] However, the classicist Adrian Goldsworthy considers Livy's "reliability is often suspect";[15] the historian Phillip Sabin refers to Livy's "military ignorance";[16] and he is generally considered untrustworthy by modern historians. [142], Hasdrubal received orders from Carthage to move into Italy and join up with Hannibal in order to put pressure on the Romans in their homeland. Wars of the Fall of the Western Roman Empire, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Second_Punic_War&oldid=992384973, Short description is different from Wikidata, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 5 December 2020, at 00:13. Most of the leadership in Cartha… Roman, almost the equal of Rome. This was a very interesting event, as it happened three times! Traditionally, when at war the Romans would raise two legions, each of 4,200 infantry[note 3] and 300 cavalry. Carthage was a city in the area known in the modern day as Tusnia, North Africa (The Editors of Encyclopædia Britannica., 2016). [112] It was the only time during the war that Carthage reinforced Hannibal. Accordingly, this war has captured, Carthage vs. Rome; the Punic Wars [24][25], Carthaginian citizens only served in their army if there was a direct threat to the city. These, ancient history, both the Roman Empire and the Carthage Empire were rivals in many battles and wars. [60] This gave Carthage the silver mines, agricultural wealth, manpower, military facilities such as shipyards and territorial depth to stand up to future Roman demands with confidence. In most circumstances Carthage recruited foreigners to make up its army. And all three times it was Rome who was the victor in these wars. Scipio then invaded Carthaginian Africa in 204, compelling the Carthaginian Senate to recall Hannibal's army from Italy. [129] In 212 BC Hannibal destroyed the Roman army of M. Centenius Penula at the Battle of the Silarus in northwest Lucania. Raising fresh troops to replace these delayed the army's departure for Iberia until September. [175][176], Second war between Rome and Carthage, 218 to 201 BC. [103], Little has survived of Polybius's account of Hannibal's army in Italy after Cannae. [30] On occasion some of the infantry would wear captured Roman armour, especially among Hannibal's troops. The peace treaty imposed on the Carthaginians stripped them of all of their overseas territories, and some of their African ones. Background . [55] Under the leadership of Hamilcar Barca, Carthage defeated the rebels in 237 BC. [115], For 11 years after Cannae the war surged around southern Italy as cities went over to the Carthaginians or were taken by subterfuge, and the Romans recaptured them by siege or by suborning pro-Roman factions. The latter joined his army in large numbers, bringing it up to 60,000 men. [34] Slingers were frequently recruited from the Balearic Islands. It soon received Gallic and Ligurian reinforcements. [101] At least 67,500 Romans were killed or captured. Many senior Carthaginians wanted to reject it, but Hannibal spoke strongly in its favour and it was accepted in spring 201 BC. The Romans established a lodgement in north-east Iberia and the Carthaginians repeatedly attempted and failed to reduce it. [90] Hannibal set an ambush[90] and in the Battle of Lake Trasimene completely defeated the Roman army, killing 15,000 Romans,[91] including Flaminius,[90] and taking 10,000 prisoner. [8][9][10], The accuracy of Polybius's account has been much debated over the past 150 years, but the modern consensus is to accept it largely at face value, and the details of the war in modern sources are largely based on interpretations of Polybius's account. In the spring of 212 BC the Romans stormed Syracuse in a surprise night assault and captured several districts of the city. [147][151] It was followed by the Roman capture of Gades, after the city rebelled against Carthaginian rule. Second Punic War, second (218–201 bce) in a series of wars between the Roman Republic and the Carthaginian (Punic) empire that resulted in Roman hegemony over the western Mediterranean. [143] In 206 BC the Carthaginians ended this drain on their resources by dividing several Numidian kingdoms with him. [170] In the spring of 146 BC the Romans launched their final assault, systematically destroying the city and killing its inhabitants;[171] 50,000 survivors were sold into slavery. As what happens so often, history is written by the side who wins, Cárthage vs. Rome [160] Unlike most battles of the Second Punic War, the Romans had superiority in cavalry and the Carthaginians in infantry. Where did its power come from? Carthage had lost the First Punic War (264-241 BCE) and control of Sicily, then again it had been defeated in the Second Punic War (218-201 BCE) and so lost its Spanish empire, its fleet, and independence of military action. The majority were deployed in southern Italy in field armies of approximately 20,000 men each. Many of the Romans wanted a strong leader to take them to glory; therefore, the way was paved for, John Paul Stevens: US Supreme Court Justice, Ten Days That Shook the World by John Reed, Distribution Channels and Consumer Adoption, An Accurate Assessment of the 50's and 60's in America. Now Rome had a problem, for the first time in its history, soldiers had been away to war for a long period of time. http://becausegamesmatter.comSupport our Patreon to create more Extra History! Sources other than Polybius are discussed by Bernard Mineo in "Principal Literary Sources for the Punic Wars (apart from Polybius)". One was stationed at Arretium, and one on the Adriatic coast; they would be able to block Hannibal's possible advance into central Italy, and be well positioned to move north to operate in Cisalpine Gaul. [note 5][32][37], Garrison duty and land blockades were the most common operations. [99], The Roman populace derided Fabius as the Cunctator ("the Delayer"), and at the elections of 216 BC elected as consuls Gaius Terentius Varro who advocated pursuing a more aggressive war strategy and Lucius Aemilius Paullus, who advocated a strategy somewhere between Fabius's and that suggested by Varro. The Carthaginian formation collapsed; Hannibal was one of the few to escape the field. The Second Punic War (aka The Hannibalic War) was fought between Carthage and Rome between 218 and 201 BCE. [133] Hannibal then fought the inconclusive Battle of Numistro, but the Romans stayed on his heels, fighting the also inconclusive Battle of Canusium in 209 BC. [158] Hannibal was placed in command of another army, formed from his veterans from Italy and newly raised troops from Africa, but with few cavalry. Some people had left the countryside to work in the arms industry, and some had left for Rome looking for subsistence. Third Punic War. Soldiers returning home from the wars were unable to find employment because wealthy landlords were utilizing slaves to get work done instead of hiring Romans. [122][123] Both Polybius' and Livy's accounts of the siege focus on Archimedes' invention of war machines to counteract Roman siege warfare, made more difficult by the strong defenses of the city. [91], The prisoners were badly treated if they were Romans; the Latin allies who were captured were well treated by the Carthaginians and many were freed and sent back to their cities, in the hope that they would speak well of Carthaginian martial prowess and of their treatment. [172] The formerly Carthaginian territories became the Roman province of Africa. His subordinate Hanno was able to raise troops in Samnium in 214 BC, but the Romans intercepted these new levies in the Battle of Beneventum and eliminated them before they rendezvoused with Hannibal. The Mercenary War & The Second Punic War The Mercenary War (240-237 BC) Carthage had to pay its mercenary soldiers after the First Punic War, even though Carthage lost the war to Rome. What happened to it? The warrior is armed with a, 2nd century BC marble bust, identified as the younger Scipio, now in the. [140] Mago was also recalled; he died of wounds on the voyage and some of his ships were intercepted by the Romans,[140] but 12,000 of his troops reached Carthage. [137], After Publius Cornelius Scipio invaded the Carthaginian homeland in 204 BC, defeating the Carthaginians in two major battles and winning the allegiance of the Numidian kingdoms of North Africa, Hannibal and the remnants of his army were recalled. The Second Punic War was the most significant of the three conflicts fought between Rome and Carthage that are collectively known as the Punic Wars. [78] The Carthaginians reached the foot of the Alps by late autumn[75] and crossed them, surmounting the difficulties of climate, terrain[75] and the guerrilla tactics of the native tribes. [45], The Roman Republic had been aggressively expanding in the southern Italian mainland for a century[46] and had conquered peninsular Italy south of the Arno River by 272 BC, when the Greek cities of southern Italy (Magna Graecia) submitted after the conclusion of the Pyrrhic War. This new Carthaginian invasion was defeated at the Battle of the Metaurus. [43] Many battles were decided when one side's infantry force was attacked in the flank or rear and they were partially or wholly enveloped. They took control of the city of Saguntum, who appealed to the Romans for help. At the Battle of Ilipa in 206 Scipio permanently ended the Carthaginian presence in Iberia. [147][150][151], In 206 BC, at the Battle of Ilipa, Scipio with 48,000 men, half Italian and half Iberian, defeated a Carthaginian army of 54,500 men and 32 elephants. His surprise entry into the Italian peninsula led to the cancellation of Rome's planned campaign for the year: an invasion of Africa. The new arrivals in Rome The term ‘Punic’ comes from the Latin word ‘Punicus’ meaning Carthaginian. Alarmed by this, the armies surrounding Capua go to Rome, where they are slaughtered by Hannibal. Hannibal negotiated a treaty whereby Syracuse came over to Carthage, at the price of making the whole of Sicily a Syracusan possession. Reinforced by Gallic allies, he obtained crushing victories over the Romans at the battles of Trebia (218) and Lake Trasimene (217). The Romans took drastic steps to raise new legions: enrolling slaves, criminals and those who did not meet the usual property qualification and so vastly increasing the number of men they had under arms. [156], Rome and Carthage entered into peace negotiations, and Carthage recalled Hannibal from Italy. A Roman relief army broke through the siege, but was then ambushed and besieged itself. [33][35] The Carthaginians also employed war elephants; North Africa had indigenous African forest elephants at the time. The Second Punic War was fought between 218-201 BCE. They carried several javelins, which would be thrown from a distance, a short sword, and a 90-centimetre (3 ft) shield. The Punic Wars were a series of three wars between 264 and 146 BC fought by the states of Rome and Carthage.The First Punic War broke out in Sicily in 264 BC as a result of Rome's expansionary attitude combined with Carthage's proprietary approach to the island. His aim was to join his forces with those of Hannibal, but Hannibal was unaware of his presence. Mago left Iberia for northern Italy with his remaining forces. Publius Scipio moved quickly to counter the new offensive but was ambushed by the Punic cavalry, losing 2,000 men. [159] The decisive Battle of Zama followed in October 202 BC. The Second Punic War broke out in B.C. Rome After the Punic Wars; Rome After the Punic Wars. [48] By 264 BC, Carthage was the dominant external power on the island, and Carthage and Rome were the preeminent powers in the western Mediterranean. Moreover, this was the first time that Rome had expanded into territories outside of Italy which was pivotal in the development of the Roman Republic, and furthermore the Rome Empire, as it marks the beginning of an imperial Roman power (Rickard, 2001). It entered Gaul and took an inland route, to avoid the Roman allies to the south. [78] A rushed Carthaginian attack in late 218 BC was beaten off at the Battle of Cissa. [92][93] Hannibal hoped some of these allies could be persuaded to defect. The Second Punic War was fought between 218 and 201 BC. [85] Two armies – of four legions each, two Roman and two allied, but with stronger than usual cavalry contingents[86] – were formed. In such circumstances it was difficult to force a battle if the other commander was unwilling to fight. [82] As a result, most of the Gallic tribes declared for the Carthaginian cause, and Hannibal's army grew to more than 40,000 men. Their city had suffered too much in the war and in its aftermath during the ‘Mercenary War’ and there was a strong pro-peace party in the city. Publius Scipio was the bereaved son of the previous Roman co-commander in Iberia, also named Publius Scipio, and the nephew of the other co-commander, Gnaeus Scipio. The Punic Wars were a defining moment in the expansion of the Roman Republic, with the Second Punic War (218 – 201 BC (Grant, 1960)) playing the part of a corner stone in the bridge to create the powerful Roman Empire. They had to try to win back some of these lands in order to survive. It was prohibited from waging war outside Africa, and in Africa only with Rome's express permission. After the Carthaginians failed to resupply the city, Syracuse fell in the autumn of 212 BC; Archimedes was killed by a Roman soldier. [74], Meanwhile, Hannibal assembled a Carthaginian army in New Carthage (modern Cartagena) and led it northwards along the Iberian coast in May or June. [29][30] Both Iberia and Gaul provided large numbers of experienced infantry – unarmoured troops who would charge ferociously, but had a reputation for breaking off if a combat was protracted[31][32] – and unarmoured close order cavalry[33] referred to by Livy as "steady", meaning that they were accustomed to sustained hand-to-hand combat rather than hit and run tactics. 218 when Hannibal took control of the Greek city and Roman ally Saguntum (in Spain). Winning battles at Trebia (218 BC) and Lake Trasimene (217 BC), Hannibal defeated armies led by Tiberius Sempronius Longus and Gaius Flaminius Nepos. The Romans retreated to their coastal stronghold north of the Ebro, from which the Carthaginians again failed to expel them. Hannibal could win allies, but defending them against the Romans was a new and difficult problem, as the Romans could still field multiple armies, which in total greatly outnumbered his own forces. After he died, his son in law took over the army and territory he had gained and made a treaty with the Romans that established the limits for the Spanish Carthaginian territory. Livy gives a fuller record, but according to Goldsworthy "his reliability is often suspect", especially with regard to his descriptions of battles; many modern historians agree, but nevertheless his is the best surviving source for this part of the war. Both Rome and Carthage were prestigious empires with economic and political growth mainly through trade and the conquest of land, but during the Punic Wars, they were both tested against each other that lead to 100’s of years of war to determine which empire was the supreme power of the Mediterranean. [143] This strategy resulted in the Battle of Castulo and the Battle of Ilorca, usually combined as the Battle of the Upper Baetis. [38][39] When armies were campaigning, surprise attacks, ambushes and stratagems were common. The Second Punic War is known as Hannibal’s War or against Hannibal. This battle confirmed Roman dominance in Italy. Scipio was awarded a triumph and received the agnomen "Africanus". 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