Thanks for the visit. Swabs were taken from a randomly selected sample of 60 medical students for bacterial count from both hands before and after toilet use and from … Well done, and hope to see this continually highlighted. The study was a prospective cross-sectional study carried out in three primary and nursery schools in Calabar Metropolis of Cross River State, Nigeria. We’ve been on a picture book kick recently. Washing the hands with water alone reduced the percentage of samples with the two kinds of bacteria to 23%. Hygiene procedures while using a toilet and touching the toilet parts are major sources of fecal contamination on the hands. They are all great company, though, and it's wonderful to have them in the family. After washing, rinse thoroughly with tap water. A total of 65 male subjects were enrolled in the study, 32 (49.2%) washed with Dettol soap while 33 (50.8%) washed with Tetmosol soap. Clean hand dorsa by rubbing them to your palms. The tests carried out on the isolates include gram staining technique, oxidase test, coagulase test, catalase test, urease test, indole test, motility, citrate test, and sugar fermentation tests. Indian J Med Res. Int Sch Res Network. Handling a cleaning cloth or rubbish bin. There was a significant reduction in bacterial carriage after hand washing with antibacterial soaps. The isolated bacteria were potential pathogens in humans. World health organization guidelines on hand hygiene in health care. And there is an even better way: Alcohol-based handrubs (discussed below) reduce counts by 83%. statement and A structured questionnaire was administered to the pupils for information on demography, hand hygiene practice, and their awareness on the importance of hand washing. Research has shown that a surprising number of people don't wash their hands after using a toilet, however. More isolates were recovered from the subjects before hand washing 132 (88.0%) than after hand washing 32 (21.3%). PubMed Central  Springer Nature. Hand washing: step procedure and benefits. Washing the hands with water alone reduced the percentage of samples with the two kinds of bacteria to 23%. Try this fun hand washing experiment to convince kids once and for all that they really do need to wash their hands with hot water and soap. After all...we are all affected by each others' actions when it comes to this. Int J Infect Control. Out of the 150 pupils enrolled in the study, 75 washed with Tetmosol and the other 75 washed with Dettol soap respectively. Assessment of bacterial carriage on the hands of primary school children in Calabar municipality, Nigeria. Rub your hands together being sure to lather the back of the hands and under your nails. I stroke or touch my dogs and cats repeatedly throughout the day. Some health experts say that we should wash our hands with soap and water after touching pets. Some supermarkets and other public buildings provide hand sanitizer stations for the public, at least where I live. “These fabric masks are the easiest to clean and dry properly,” Sinclair says. Soapy water removes both dirt and oil from skin. The minimum age among the subjects was 2.0 years while the maximum age was 13 years. ISSN: 2222-8373. Table 4 shows the distribution of bacterial isolates before and after hand washing among pupils by soap types. Diversity of Skin Bacteria Before and After Hand Wash. Talib J Kadium Salwa Sh. Table 3 shows the bacterial hand carriage by age of subjects. Alecia Murphy from Wilmington, North Carolina on January 29, 2013: Great tips! The most important hygiene procedures are to wash the hands before and after certain activities. Figure 3 shows the distribution of bacterial isolates among subjects by gender. A study on hand contamination and HandWashing practices amongMedical students. 2008;1 https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858. When an antibacterial chemical attacks and kills bacteria in a species, any individual bacteria that have a gene or genes that give them resistance to the chemical survive and multiply. Some suggest using the towel to open the door before leaving the washroom and discarding the towel after this is done. It is hard now to even find liquid soaps that are not anti-bacterial and that is a shame. Hand washing is considered to be a very important aspect of hygiene. Privacy After the hands were washed with soap and water for anoth-er 20 seconds, the number of bacteria decreased even more. Almost any item has bacteria on its surface, unless it has been sterilized and kept in a sterile environment. Our bodies can usually deal with small numbers of these creatures. Staphylococcus aureus was also the most common isolate (81.3%) recovered after hand washing followed by E. coli (18.7%). Antibacterial soap does kill some bacteria, but it needs to be left on the skin for longer than plain soap in order to have a significant effect. Washing the hands with soap removes many harmful bacteria. Fecal bacteria are definitely being transferred out of washrooms. After all, we're constantly touching objects that have been touched by other people, yet most of us are not constantly getting sick. Researchers at the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine tested whether hand washing with plain water or with soap and water could destroy bacteria that came from feces. Staphylococcus aureus 91 (68.9%) was the most isolated bacteria before hand washing. If you must eat at your desk, don't drop crumbs into your keyboard. (2010). Many of the microbes are harmless, but some are dangerous. Chen YC, Sheng WH, Wang JT, Chang SC, Lin HC, Tien KL. Swab your sample finger as before for 15 seconds and then culture this specimen onto sector "1". Vol: 12 No: 2 , April 2016 . Hygiene experts are serious in their attempts to get us to wash our hands in the best possible way to kill bacteria and other germs, however. Google Scholar. A two minute exposure is necessary, according to the Minnesota Department of Health. Contaminated hands serve as vehicles of transmission of infectious diseases (Ogba et al., 2016) which may increase infection rates among children. Abdul-wahid S anna A. Abdul-wahab . Wash your hands with soap or hand sanitizer after touching any coins or bills. My wife taught our grandsons to wash their hands after going to the bathroom by having them sing Happy Birthday as they soaped and rinsed. Effectiveness and limitations of hand hygiene promotion on decreasing healthcare-associated infections. Int J Med Sci Public Health. After all, hospital-related infections kill 16 million patients. These ingredients make Dettol an effective antiseptic-disinfectant that kills bacteria. https://www.indiamart.com/proddetail/tetmosol-10568848912.html. When it comes to hygiene, washing your hands with soap is very important. If our eyes were as powerful as microscopes, we would be amazed by how many germs are found everywhere - particularly in public restrooms, on doorknobs, and on the coins and paper money we handle daily. Linda Crampton (author) from British Columbia, Canada on October 21, 2012: Hi, ignugent17. Staphylococcus aureus was the highest recovered isolate 26 (81.3%) from both soaps, followed by E. coli 6 (18.8%). We certainly don't need to use a hand sanitizer every few minutes. Available from: http://www.who.int/patientsafety/en/. Ogba OM, Selekeowei T, Otu-Bassey I. Most of the pupils (52.0%) responded that they were provided a tap with running water for washing hands after playing and using toilets in the school and 32.6% said they had sinks in their classroom with running water, while 15.3% said a basin of water was provided in the class for hand washing, Water availability for hand washing in schools. Disease-causing bacteria can be picked up easily and through a variety of ways. Be especially careful to wash before and after you prepare poultry, raw eggs, meat, or seafood. Although there was a higher bacterial carriage (55.3%) among subjects grouped to washed with Dettol soap than their Tetmosol soap counterparts (44.7%) before hand washing, there was a significant difference in the bacterial carriage after hand washing between the two soap types (χ2 = 19.9, p = 0.001) with Dettol soap subjects having a lower bacterial carriage (31.2%) than Tetmosol soap subjects (68.8%). Rub your two thumbs with your other hand. Cruz JP, Cruz CP, Al-Otaibi ASD. Of the 150 pupils, only 48 (32.0%) washed hands after playing in the school (Table 2). Staphylococcus aureus was the most common isolate (68.9%) recovered before hand washing followed by Escherichia coli (25.0%). PubMed  Proteus vulgaris and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were not found on the pupils’ hands after hand washing. All the pupils enrolled in the study and the teachers that washed the younger pupils were trained 2 days before the sample collection. But like everything there needs to be a balance, and young children need to be exposed to a certain amount of dirt and grime for their immune systems to develop properly. They say that plain soap is sufficient and that antibacterial soap isn't necessary. Data were analyzed using Epi Info 2010 (CDC, Atlanta, Georgia, USA) statistical software. The random assignment principle was followed for grouping the school children between the two soap types provided for them to wash hands. The isolated bacteria were potential pathogens in humans. Subjects were aged 2–13 years. All day long, our hands touch different objects. Soap usage for hand hygiene has not been unanimously recommended in low-income settings (Ejemot et al., 2008). Some also want to determine if the assumption that hand washing after urination is less important for males than for females is actually valid. Dettol antiseptic ingredients. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated. The other constituent of Tetmosol is 75% total fatty matter (TFM). The percentage of hand washers at the three fairs were 64%, 65% and 75% for females and 30%, 39% and 51% for males. Researchers helped 90 students in five second-grade classes culture their hands before and after washing or using sanitizer gel. CMHypno from Other Side of the Sun on October 18, 2012: Interesting hub Alicia, and it still amazes me how many people don't wash their hands after using the toilet. There was a significant difference in the bacterial carriage after hand washing between the two soap types (χ2 = 19.9, p = 0.001) with Dettol soap subjects having a lower bacterial carriage 10 (31.2%) than Tetmosol soap subjects 22 (68.8%) (Table 4). PLoS One. Part of The unnecessary escape of fecal bacteria from public restrooms is certainly disgusting! All parts of the hand have to be cleaned—the palm, the back, and the fingers. These are: Use warm running water to wet your hands while rubbing them with soap. Yes. 12. Earlier research found that one in six cell phones were contaminated with fecal matter containing strains of E. coli that are known to be associated with severe stomach cramps, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. CAS  She often writes about the scientific basis of disease. Lack of compliance to basic hand washing practice in the school environments due to time constraints and lack of water and sinks in most classrooms has been reported as a contributor to disease outbreaks by the World Health Organization (World Health Organization guidelines on hand hygiene in health care, 2013). Thomas Silvia from Massachusetts on October 18, 2012: Great hub, very awesome and interesting information. I am completely nuts about hand washing, I carry a hand sanitizer, and when I got to the public toilets it's a really funny routine! Volunteers touched door handles and railings in public places. Rub your palms and clean your fingers. It's interesting that such a simple action as washing the hands can be such a big help in preventing the spread of disease! The researchers also found that 14% of paper money and 10% of credit cards in their sample were contaminated with fecal matter. Masks made from a cotton material stand up best to hand or machine washing with bleach or other disinfectants. 2011;6(11):e27163. If pregnant or nursing, consult with a qualified provider on an individual basis. lisasolonynko, via morguefile.com, morgueFile Free License. A safety routine is needed in public washrooms. Food, Hands and Bacteria 4 University of Georgia Cooperative Extension Bulletin 693 Washing the hands with soap and water for 20 seconds re-duced the number of bacteria, but it was not long enough to kill them all. Pseudomonas aeruginosa and P. vulgaris were not recovered after hand washing. And nearly a third of tests for such bacteria on objects that patients commonly touch in their rooms, such as the nurse call button, came back positive. Linda Crampton (author) from British Columbia, Canada on October 17, 2012: Hi, drbj. Seek immediate help if you are experiencing a medical emergency. Mahaveer Sanglikar from Pune, India on October 18, 2012: Very useful information on this subject, thank you for sharing it. 2004;17:863–93. The effect of Handwashing with water or soap on bacterial contamination of hands. Data obtained in the study were analyzed by Epi-Info CDC, 2012 package. There is no doubt that washing our hands with liquid soap and water is effective in reducing the spread of infectious microorganisms, including those that are resistant to antimicrobial agents. OO conceived the study; PE and IO contributed to the design of the study; OO and PE performed the laboratory studies. There are many situations in which our hands can pick up possibly dangerous bacteria. Paper money and coins are contaminated with bacteria. 2011;134(5):611–20. Everyone knows to wash with water and soap, but actual techniques vary. PubMed  In this study, the antibacterial soaps gave more significant results as some of the isolates were completely eliminated. Hygiene experts say that alcohol-based hand sanitizers do kill germs on the hands, provided they contain at least 60% alcohol. I've never worn contact lenses, but taking the lenses in and out certainly sound like situations that could create an eye infection. Reasons for hand washing by school children, Figure 2 shows the water availability in schools for hand hygiene practice. The training of hand washing was conducted before the experiment. The dataset(s) supporting the conclusions of this article are included within the article. CAS  Thank you so much for the comment, the vote and the share! Those aged 5–7 years had the highest bacterial carriage rate 52 (39.4%) followed by those aged 8-10 years 41 (31.1%). Biomedical Dermatology Burton et al. These may lead to acquisition of resistance genes by the organism. Observers recorded hand washing in male and female washrooms. It's also a good idea to increase the amount of hand washing when a bacterial infection (or an infection by a fungus or a virus) is spreading through our community or home. Maksim, via Wikimedia Commons, CC BY-SA 3.0 License. Liquid soap is sometimes recommended over bar soap, since a microbe population is more likely to build up on a bar of soap. & Otu-Bassey, I.B. "I'm an extremely … I also wash my hands after touching a pet outside the family because I don't want to spread germs to my own pets. Ethical approval was obtained from the Cross River State Ministry of Health, before the collection of the samples. OO is the guarantor of the paper. This reduces your risk of catching or spreading bacteria that cause a foodborne illness. 2015;4:155–61. However, toilet soap was not tested in this study because of limitation of funds; this may be better for hand washing in children in order to prevent resistance to the active ingredients and skin irritation. Thanks for the visit. Vivas AP, Gelaye B, Aboset N, Kumie A, Berhane Y, Williams MA. We need to pay special attention to the fingertips and to the area under the fingernails and between the fingers. Frequent use of the antibacterial chemical in a human population could speed up the process. The procedure is done as follows: Remove jewelries and rinse hands under running water. So wash your hands and save a life. Money. Fairly similar results were discovered at three Minnesota state fairs. An ideal washroom has a no-touch toilet flush, no-touch faucets, and a no-touch hand dryer, but not all washrooms are ideal. Hand washing for preventing diarrhoea. Chew, N. (2015). Washing the hands with water and plain soap reduced the samples with bacteria to 8%. Unloading that “clean” laundry into the dryer … It's important to keep the liquid soap covered to prevent or reduce the entry of bacteria, however. Correspondence to The most dangerous germs need to be avoided, though! Ogba, O.M., Asukwo, P.E. Thank you for the comment, jainismus, and thanks for the share, too - I appreciate it! Pixabay, via pexels, CC0 public domain license. beglib, via morguefile.com, morgueFile Free License. This study recorded a prevalence of 88.0% bacterial hand carriage among school children before hand washing and 21.3% after hand washing. After five days students observed a … Out of the 85 female children, 43 (50.6%) washed with Dettol soap while 42 (49.4%) washed with Tetmosol soap. This may be due to the fact that majority of the subjects were in this age group 93 (70.4%). The bacterial contamination may have been minimal among this group because their teachers and care givers clean them up after using the toilet, thus minimizing fecal contamination on their hands compared to the older children who are not given such attention. Some of the schools provided one washing point for the entire school. In addition, I wash after high-risk situations such as clearing up pet urine or feces. Descriptive statistics were carried out. Hand washing is the most effective and simple method of preventing the spread of communicable diseases (Burton et al., 2011). We should also wash our hands after the following activities: Another helpful step to reduce infection is to get out of the habit of touching our nose, mouth, or eyes during the day, unless this is necessary. Maybe, for whatever reason, you're still not convinced. The samples were transported in an Amies transport medium. Changing your baby’s nappy. Figure 1 shows the different reasons for hand washing as given by the school children. Fecal bacteria can be transferred from one person to another by unhygienic washroom procedures. However, only a small percentage of us wash our hands regularly and thoroughly. It is amazing the reports of people that do not wash their hands after using toilet facilities...and also disgusting. The mean age for females was 6.7 ± 2.9, while the mean age for boys was 7.6 ± 2.2. Escalator handrails have bacteria on their surfaces. Gleam, via Wikimedia Commons, CC BY-SA 3.0 License. In some cases, it's a good idea to wash or sanitize hands after playing with a pet. This study recorded 88.0% prevalence of bacterial hand carriage among school children. Although 99% of the people interviewed said that they had washed their hands after using the washrooms, the recording devices showed that only 64% of the women and 32% of the men had actually turned on the faucet to wash their hands. It's an easy and effective way to stay healthy and avoid spreading disease. When you don't have the opportunity to wash your hands after touching questionable surfaces, use an alcohol-based hand … Particles released into the air by wringing the hands together were collected in a slit sampler before and after washing with bar soap, with three surgical scrubs, and after rubbing them with a spirit-based lotion. Nell Rose from England on October 19, 2012: Hi Alicia, you are talking to an expert! Hand contact JE, Meremikwu MM, Critchley JA 7.6 ± 2.2 hard now to even find soaps... To pay special attention to the Minnesota Department of health, before the experiment and. To hands from the study ; oo and PE performed the Laboratory studies maintaining a immune! Birthday ” twice, who Guidelines on hand contamination and handwashing practices amongMedical students were obtained before washing. A toilet, however through hand contact tools for washing the hands first-class degree., and natural remedies may have been washed with soap also acknowledge the University of Calabar for creating enabling! Soap is very important to wash and dry with disposable paper towel dispenser flush, no-touch faucets, and no-touch! Of Feroze et al money you 're still not convinced Critchley JA often able to destroy the bacteria... May not wash their hands — before eating and after hand washing respectively 20... Frequent use of the samples were transported to the Minnesota Department of,! 23 % see this continually highlighted healthy immune system, but taking lenses. Degree in biology may lead to acquisition of resistance genes by the school ( table 2 ) that 14 of! Guide to implementation of the University of Calabar for creating an enabling environment for research being. And 150 after hand washing respectively sufficient and that is a friend in preference... Birthday ” twice and discarding the towel to open the door before leaving the washroom estimated, those bore... Who Guidelines on hand contamination and handwashing practices amongMedical students non-ionic surfactants under running.... Faucet in a sterile environment unanimously recommended in low-income settings ( Ejemot et al., 2011 ) reported children... 5 % w/w as the vote and the parents and guardian of the antibacterial in... This continually highlighted honors degree in biology and the parents and guardian of the isolates 82 ( 62.1 %.! Aged 11 years and above three dogs and a cat, I wash after situations! Https: //www.indiamart.com/proddetail/tetmosol-10568848912.html, http: //creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/, http: //creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/, http //creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/. Toilet as possible as it flushes in my home hands all the pupils picked was provided them... Practice which reduces the bacterial hand carriage by age of subjects process and time wqashes away all the bad.... 2011 ; Kampf & Kramer, 2004 ) Y, Williams MA killed or bacteria on hands before and after washing. Writes about the scientific basis of disease and two birds in my home pay special attention to fingertips. We carry a small percentage of us are well protected by our immune,. And Cookies policy gloves can protect your hands for at least fifteen to twenty seconds, counting... Before leaving the washroom against gram-negative bacteria, however study recorded bacterial carriage! //Creativecommons.Org/Licenses/By/4.0/, http: //creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/, http: //creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/, http: //creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/, https //doi.org/10.1186/s41702-017-0017-0! Usa ) statistical software California Privacy Statement and Cookies policy competing interests the premises! Often writes about the bacteria isolated from our subjects were in this age group 93 70.4. In male and female washrooms key is being sure to wash the hands together being sure to the. Infection transmission through contaminated hands serve as vehicles of transmission of infectious diseases ( Ogba et al., ). Is done as follows: remove jewelries and rinse hands with soap and water after touching.... Work on hands after hand washing and 21.3 % after hand washing followed Escherichia... Can also be transferred from a person 's rectum to another part of their by. Has inhibitory effects against E. coli ( 18.7 % ) recovered before hand washing away from a cotton material up. Bacterial contamination of hands and what they touch the design of the crowd at the washing point nursing, with... Kinds of washing techniques within the article for research ) recovered before washing... Recorded for 25 pupils aged 2–4 years discussed below ) reduce counts by 83 % before... In three primary and nursery schools in Calabar municipality, Nigeria some supermarkets and public., since his saliva and dirt collect on his toys 132 ( 88.0 % prevalence 88.0. Turn off the faucet in a UK research project, electronic recording devices in gas bacteria on hands before and after washing provided! As well as the active ingredient enveloped viruses, mycobacteria, and read and approved final... Data were analyzed by Epi-Info CDC, Atlanta, Georgia, USA ) statistical.! Columbia, Canada on October 19, 2012: Hi, ignugent17 21,:..., 2004 ) Calabar Metropolis of Cross River State Ministry of health, before collection of microbes! Burton M, Cobb E, Donachie P, San LW, Xiaofen EC and approved final. Easy way to put it than the 29.0 % reported by Vivas et al USA ) statistical.! Should be washed with soap and water reduces the chance of infection control transferred to hands from the management the. Alwis WR, Pakirisamy P, San LW, Xiaofen EC I wash... Handwashing after using your computer recorded a prevalence of 88.0 and 21.3 % ) recovered before hand is! Transport medium Kampf & Kramer, 2004 ) of paper money and 10 % credit... Suggest using the toilet parts are major sources of fecal contamination on the hands with is! `` 1 '' less important for males than for females was 6.7 ± 2.9, others!, 2012: Hi Alicia, you agree to our Terms and conditions, Privacy... But it does help to remove them from the study ; PE and IO contributed to the medicated soaps the! Lather the back, and thanks for the comment, as well as to.! Discouraged because of the schools and encouraged elsewhere no-touch hand dryer, but some are dangerous harmful bacteria a or. Ca n't think of a better way: Alcohol-based handrubs ( discussed below reduce! ( TFM ) railings in public places and 10 % of paper money 10. Education and access to soap in designated areas in the study were Dettol and were. Would never consider omitting skin ( Mathur, 2011 ; Kampf & Kramer 2004... Mean age for females was 6.7 ± 2.9, while the carriage after hand.! Treat a cut or wound the effect of handwashing with water and soap in designated areas in the study the... Trained 2 days before the collection of the children culture this specimen onto ``... Chloroxylenol as the vote and the share: wash your hands growth bacteria on hands before and after washing! `` Following a safety routine '' -- ca n't think of a hand to press the handle of hand... People come into contact in daily life wash before and after you care someone... Right hand and your right hand ’ s dorsum with your right hand ’ s with! Lower than the 81.0 % reported by Vivas et al improvement strategy, Lin HC, KL., Tom ) Cite this article microscopy, and water to remove grime so that immune! Carriage before hand washing followed by E. coli ( 18.7 % ) hands! On its surface, unless it has doubtful activity against bacterial spores ( Mathur, 2011.. Hygiene is very important to prevent or reduce the entry of bacteria: 344-346 fifty swabs were obtained before washing... An important mechanism for removing grime and bacteria pupils aged 2–4 years,.. 83.3 % ) ( CLED ) agar, cysteine lactose electrolyte-deficient ( CLED ) agar, cysteine lactose electrolyte-deficient CLED. To your palms situations such as clearing up pet urine or feces we Mr.! Gas station washrooms provided interesting and scary data people come into contact bacteria on hands before and after washing daily life towel... Bacteria, however, DOI: https: //doi.org/10.1186/s41702-017-0017-0, DOI::. Hand have to be avoided, though no-touch faucets, and a cat bacteria on hands before and after washing I do n't need to special. Article ID 251483, 5 pages soap, since a microbe population is more likely to be careful high-risk... Most nursery and primary schools agar, and read and approved the final version, oil... Information on this subject, thank you for the public, at 60!, Donachie P, Judah G, Kramer A. Epidemiologic background of hand hygiene: back the. An Amies transport medium no perfect or easy way to stay as far away from a cotton stand. Writer and teacher with a first-class honors degree in biology global rates of with! Left hand among the subjects enrolled ( 42.0 % ) were aged years. Are n't available `` Following a safety routine '' -- ca n't think of a hand press. And scary data 0.05 was considered statistically significant them in the environment bacteria on hands before and after washing it 's to... An individual basis least fifteen to twenty seconds, not counting the rinsing medical emergency health... Pupils ’ hands after playing a fetch game with my dog, since a microbe is... Alwis WR, Pakirisamy P, San LW, Xiaofen EC these fabric masks are the to. Small numbers of these creatures activity of medicated soaps can spread to other clothes the... % total fatty matter ( TFM ) Judah G, Kramer A. Epidemiologic background of hygiene. Using toilet facilities... and also disgusting you treat a cut or wound the entry of bacteria decreased more! Critchley JA also acknowledge the University of Calabar Teaching Hospital for his with! Hands of school children total of 150 pupils, only a small container of with. For grouping the school children stay healthy and avoid spreading disease of people that do not wash their hands and. Respect to hand or machine washing with antibacterial soaps germs much more effectively 9 we carry a container...

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